Beta Thalassemia

Sigma Theta Tau International Nu Beta at-Large Chapter | Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing

Beta Thalassemia | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Nu Beta is a chartered chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI), Honor Society of Nursing, and was established at Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in 1992.

The purposes of Sigma Theta Tau are to recognize superior achievement and the development of leadership capabilities, foster high professional standards, encourage creative work, and strengthen commitment to the ideals and purposes of the profession of nursing.  


Through its members, the honor society strives to improve the health of the world's people.


Sigma Theta Tau was founded in 1922 by six nursing students at Indiana University. In 1936, Sigma Theta Tau became the first organization in the United States to fund nursing research. The society was incorporated in 1985 as Sigma Theta Tau International, Inc.

, to support and connect the global community of nursing scholars who enhance healthcare worldwide. More than 300,000 nurse scholars have been inducted into Sigma Theta Tau. It is the second largest nursing organization in the world.

Members are active in more than 90 countries and territories, and the 424 chapters are located in 523 college and university campuses in the United States and countries including Canada, Hong Kong, Pakistan, South Korea, Australia, Taiwan, the Netherlands, and Brazil.

Membership is by invitation to baccalaureate and graduate nursing students who demonstrate excellence in scholarship and to nurse leaders exhibiting exceptional achievements in nursing.

Additional Nu Beta Information

  • Students are invited to join through STTI chapters located at more than 650 colleges and universities around the world.  Nursing professionals not previously inducted as nursing students can also join STTI as a Nurse Leader. Cost & Criteria
  • Induction into the honor society occurs yearly. Eligibility requirements are established by Sigma Theta Tau International.
  • Congratulations to Minhui Liu, a postdoctoral fellow in the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, who has received funding for a pilot randomized controlled trial. The study will be built upon the multi-component fall prevention program for older adults—LIVE-LiFE—developed by Dr. Sarah Szanton. Through the new study, student nurses will be trained to deliver the intervention and test it in community-dwelling older adults in China, where evidence-based fall prevention programs and professional interventionists are lacking.
  • Nu Beta at-Large Chapter Officers 2020  
    • President –Vinciya Pandian
    • President-Elect – Nancy Goldstein
    • Vice President for Academia – Kenneth Dion
    • Vice President for Practice –  Miki Goodwin
    • Treasurer –  Katrina Bezak
    • Associate Treasurer – Christina Feindt
    • Secretary –  Binu Koirala
    • Counselor – Academia, Gloria Ramsey
    • Counselor – Academia, Cynthia Carbo
    • Counselor – Practice
      1. 1. Johns Hopkins Hospital- Deborah Baker
      2. 2. JH Bayview- Maria Koszalka
      3. 3. JH Howard County  General Hospital –Jennifer Baldwin
      4. 4. JH Suburban Hospital- LeighAnn Sidone
      5. 5. JH Sibley Memorial Hospital- Laura Hendricks Jackson
      6. 6. JH All Children’s Hospital- Melissa Macogay
    • Leadership Succession Committee 
    • Leadership Succession Committee/Chair – Tamar Rodney
    • Leadership Succession Committee –
      • Brigit VanGraafeiland
      • Sharon Kozachik
      • Susan Giscombe
    • Governance Committee/Chair– Nancy Goldstein
      • Elizabeth (Betsy) Harlow Hassan
      • Eyerusalem Hagos
      • Ruth-Alma Turkson- Okran
    • Convention Delegate 1: Miki Goodwin
    • Convention Delegate 2: Vinciya Pandian
    • Philanthropy Chair: Akudo Anyanwu, Chair
      • Derek Dangerfield
      • Erin Wright
      • Jeffrey Vu
      • Kelli DePriest
      • Nicollete Hooge
    • Membership Involvement Chairs: Nada Lukkahatai
      • Membership Involvement Committee Members:
        • Chao Hsing Yeh
        • Deborah Baker
        • Maren Reinholdt
        • Martha Awoke
        • Michael Sanchez
        • Vanessa Battista
    • Membership Ambassador- Maren Reinholdt
    • Research Chair- Kelly Gleason
      • Research Committee:
        • Janiece Taylor
        • Kristen Brown
        • Melissa deCardi Hladek
        • Nancy Gentry-Russell
        • Sandra Panchalingam
        • Sarah Allgood
    • Awards Committee: (International Awards) Adam Beaman, Diana Baptiste, Susan Giscombe, Martha Awoke, Kenneth Dion
    • Publicity/Newsletter Chair: Catherine Ling
      • Publicity/Newsletter Committee Members:
        • JH Pulse Blog and SON Vitals: Sydnee Logan
        • Nu Beta Newsletter:
          • Jennifer Milesky
          • Joycelyn Cudjoe
          • Junxin Li
          • Sarah Boisen
        • Social Media: Diana Baptiste

    Positions Descriptions

  • Partnership with Practice SettingsThe Nu Beta Chapter has successfully added all six Johns Hopkins Hospitals to the Nu Beta charter. We will be the first chapter-at-large to add an entire health system. This is an exciting time for our chapter, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, and the Johns Hopkins Health System!

    Benefits of being a chapter-at-large:

    • Improves collaboration between the JHSON community and  Johns Hopkins Hospital’s nurse leaders
    • Helps foster greater collaboration in research, scholarship, and community service
    • Increases the visibility of STTI in the workplace
    • Promotes engagement, satisfaction, and retention of clinical nurses
    • Formalizes an already existing partnership between the JHSON and Johns Hopkins Health System  

    The six practice settings part of Nu-Beta Chapter:

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Blood diseases cured with bone marrow transplant

Beta Thalassemia | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Doubling the low amount of total body radiation delivered to patients undergoing bone marrow transplants with donor cells that are only “half-matched” increased the rate of engraftment from only about 50 percent to nearly 100 percent, according to a new study by Johns Hopkins researchers. The findings, published online Mar. 13 in The Lancet Haematology, could offer a significantly higher chance of a cure for patients with severe and deadly inherited blood disorders including sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia.

“These results are really exciting as we're approaching a 90 percent cure rate for sickle cell and beta thalassemia,” says Robert Brodsky, M.D.

, professor of medicine and oncology research at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, director of the Division of Hematology, and a member of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.

“Bone marrow transplants are not just for patients with a perfectly matched donor. A half-match is definitely good enough.”

In the late 1980s, explain study leaders Javier Bolaños-Meade, M.D., associate professor of oncology at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, and Brodsky, researchers discovered that bone marrow transplants could potentially cure sickle cell disease, a condition with few effective treatments and one that typically kills patients in their 40s.

However, this treatment has only been used sparingly since then. Until recently, it required bone marrow donors and recipients to fully match each other in a set of proteins known as human leukocyte antigens that are displayed on cells.

Without a complete match, Brodsky says, the recipient's body recognizes donor cells as foreign and launches a destructive attack.

Since finding a full match is difficult in this patient population — fewer than 15 percent have fully matched siblings free of the same genetic defect that causes sickle cell disease, and less than a quarter have full matches in unrelated registries — Johns Hopkins researchers developed a protocol, published in 2012, that allows patients to receive transplants from relatives who are only half-matched. This advance significantly expanded the pool of potential donors, Brodsky says, but the resulting transplants only engrafted to produce healthy new blood about 50 percent of the time.

Seeking to increase the odds of engraftment for these half-matches, Bolaños-Meade and his colleagues tested a new protocol for bone marrow transplants in patients with severe sickle cell disease and beta thalassemia, two related blood disorders known as hemoglobinopathies that are caused by defects in the same beta-globin gene. They recruited 17 patients for the study: 12 with sickle cell disease and five with beta thalassemia, with a median age of 16. Each of these patients had a relative who could serve as a half-match for a bone marrow transplant — siblings, mothers, fathers and one aunt.

As in the previous protocol, all received doses of chemotherapy and total body irradiation to knock down their immune response to the donor bone marrow before transplant.

Rather than receiving 200 centigray (cGy), the low dose of radiation delivered in the previous protocol, patients in the new study received 400 cGy — still a relatively small amount of radiation that was well-tolerated.

After their transplants, all received a dose of cyclophosphamide, a drug that has proved critical to avoiding a potentially deadly condition known as graft versus host disease that is particularly prevalent with half-matches.

Over the next 30, 60, 180 and 360 days, and yearly after that, the researchers tested the patients' blood for chimerism, the amount of DNA present from their donors that signals that a successful engraftment has taken place.

They found that all the patients, except one with sickle cell disease, had successfully engrafted — a rate significantly higher than that seen with the previous protocol.

Although five developed graft versus host disease, the condition resolved in each of these patients.

At the time of the study's publication, only three patients still needed to take immunosuppressive medications.

All of those with successful engraftment had either extreme reduction or no symptoms of their disease — the sickle cell disease patients no longer had the pain crises that are hallmarks of their condition.

Similarly, the beta thalassemia patients were no longer dependent on blood transfusions.

“These latest findings add to an extensive and growing body of evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of half-matched bone marrow transplants,” says Richard Jones, M.D., director of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center bone marrow transplantation program.

“We have performed more than 1,000 half-matched bone marrow transplants, and our clinical studies have proved so successful, with safety and toxicity comparable to matched transplants, that half-identical transplants must be made available to more patients as a curative option.”

Only mild, low-dose (or “mini”) therapy is needed to allow the transplant to take, making the transplant potentially safer for patients with sickle cell disease and thalassemia who are often unable to tolerate the high-dose (myeloablative) therapy needed for gene therapies to take, Jones says.

Other Johns Hopkins researchers who participated in this study include Kenneth Cooke, Christopher Gamper, Syed Abbas Ali, Richard Ambinder, Ivan Borrello, Ephraim Fuchs, Douglas Gladstone, Christian Gocke, Carol Ann Huff, Leo Luznik, Lode Swinnen, Heather Symons, Stephanie Terezakis, and Nina Wagner-Johnston.

This research was funded in part by 2013-MSCRFII-0082 and by National Institutes of Health grants P01 CA015396 and P30 CA006973.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medicine. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Javier Bolaños-Meade, Kenneth R Cooke, Christopher J Gamper, Syed Abbas Ali, Richard F Ambinder, Ivan M Borrello, Ephraim J Fuchs, Douglas E Gladstone, Christian B Gocke, Carol Ann Huff, Leo Luznik, Lode J Swinnen, Heather J Symons, Stephanie A Terezakis, Nina Wagner-Johnston, Richard J Jones, Robert A Brodsky. Effect of increased dose of total body irradiation on graft failure associated with HLA-haploidentical transplantation in patients with severe haemoglobinopathies: a prospective clinical trial. The Lancet Haematology, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30031-6


Beta Thalassemia

Beta Thalassemia | Johns Hopkins Medicine

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Thalassemia (thal-uh-SEE-mee-uh) is a blood disorder that is inherited. This means it is passed down from one or both parents through their genes. When you have thalassemia, your body makes less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It carries oxygen to all parts of the body.

There are two main types of thalassemia: alpha and beta. Different genes are affected for each type.

Thalassemia can cause mild or severe anemia. Anemia occurs when your body does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin. The severity and type of anemia depends on how many genes are affected.

What causes beta thalassemia?

Beta thalassemia is caused by damaged or missing genes. Two specific genes are involved. There are several types of this disorder:

Beta thalassemia major (Cooley’s anemia). There are two damaged genes. This is the most severe form of this disorder. People with this condition will need frequent blood transfusions. They may not live a normal lifespan.

Beta thalassemia minor or thalassemia trait. Only one gene is damaged. This causes less severe anemia. People with this type have a 50% chance of passing the gene to their children. If the other parent is not affected, their children will also have this form of the disorder. This type is further divided into:

  • Thalassemia minima: There are few or no symptoms.
  • Thalassemia intermedia: This causes moderate to severe anemia.

Many people with this disorder are given iron replacement by mistake. This happens when a lack of iron is believed to cause their anemia. Too much iron can be harmful. So it is important to get the right diagnosis. You may need to see a blood disorder specialist, called a hematologist.

Who is at risk for beta thalassemia?

Beta thalassemia is a genetic disease inherited from one or both parents. The only risk factor is having a family history of the disease.

What are the symptoms of beta thalassemia?

Different people will have different symptoms, which type of the disorder is inherited.

Beta thalassemia major: This is the most severe type of this disorder. Children born with this type will have symptoms early in life that include:

  • Pale skin
  • Fussy
  • Having a poor appetite
  • Having many infections

Over time more symptoms will appear, including:

  • Slowed growth
  • Belly (abdominal) swelling
  • Yellowish skin (jaundice)

Without treatment, the spleen, liver, and heart become enlarged. Bones can also become thin, brittle, and deformed.

People with this condition will need frequent blood transfusions and may not live a normal lifespan. Iron builds up in the heart and other organs from blood transfusions. This can cause heart failure as early as the teens or early 20s.

Thalassemia minima: This type often causes no symptoms.

Thalassemia intermedia: This type can cause symptoms of moderate to severe anemia including:

  • Extreme tiredness (fatigue)
  • Pale skin
  • Slow or delayed growth
  • Weak bones
  • Enlarged spleen

How is beta thalassemia diagnosed?

Beta thalassemia is most often found in people who are from Greek, Italian, African, or Asian origin. The diagnosis is most often made between 6 and 12 years old.

These tests may be able to tell if you are a carrier, and can pass the disorder on to your children:

  • Complete blood count (CBC): This test checks the size, number, and maturity of different blood cells in a set volume of blood.
  • Hemoglobin electrophoresis with hemoglobin F and A2 quantitation: A lab test that differentiates the types of hemoglobin.

All of these studies can be done from a single blood sample. In a pregnant woman, the baby is diagnosed using CVS (chorionic villus sampling) or amniocentesis.

How is beta thalassemia treated?

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment :

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history
  • How sick you are
  • How well you can handle certain medicines, procedures, or therapies
  • How long the condition is expected to last
  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Regular blood transfusions
  • Medicines to reduce extra iron from your body (called iron chelation therapy)
  • Surgery to remove the spleen, if needed
  • Daily folic acid
  • Surgery to remove the gallbladder
  • Regular checks of heart and liver function
  • Genetic tests
  • Bone marrow transplant

Note: Do not take any iron supplements.

What are the complications of beta thalassemia?

Complications of beta thalassemia vary depending on the type:

  • Thalassemia minima is mild and causes no problems. But you will be a carrier of the disorder.
  • Thalassemia intermedia can cause problems the severity of the anemia. These problems include delayed growth, weak bones, and enlarged spleen.
  • Beta thalassemia major causes major problems and can result in early death. Complications may include delayed growth, bone problems causing facial changes, liver and gall bladder problems, enlarged spleen, enlarged kidneys, diabetes, hypothyroidism, and heart problems.

Living with beta thalassemia

If you have beta thalassemia major or intermedia, living with the disorder may be challenging. Work with your healthcare provider to make a treatment plan that includes blood transfusions.

Your plan may also include treatment to remove extra iron from your body (iron chelation therapy). You will also have regular blood tests and physical exams. It is important to avoid infections. Wash your hands often and avoid others who are sick.

You may also need emotional support. Talk with your provider. He or she can help you find support.

Key points about beta thalassemia

  • Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. It causes the body to make less hemoglobin.
  • There are several types of beta thalassemia.
  • Different people will have different symptoms, which type of beta thalassemia is inherited.
  • Treatment of beta thalassemia may include medicines and regular blood transfusions.
  • Work with your healthcare provider to stay healthy and reduce complications of the disease.


What Are the Different Types of Beta Thalassemia?

The three types of beta thalassemia (BAY-tuh thahl-uh-SEE-mee-uh) are:

  • Beta thalassemia minor (also called beta thalassemia trait). People with beta thalassemia minor may have mild anemia, but usually don't need any medical treatment.
  • Beta thalassemia intermedia. People with beta thalassemia intermedia have moderately severe anemia and some will need regular blood transfusions and other medical treatment. The blood transfusions deliver healthy hemoglobin and RBCs to the body.
  • Beta thalassemia major (also called Cooley's anemia). People with beta thalassemia major have severe symptoms and life-threatening anemia. They need regular blood transfusions and other medical treatment.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Beta Thalassemia?

People with beta thalassemia trait usually do not have any symptoms.

Children with beta thalassemia intermedia or major may not show any symptoms at birth, but usually develop them in the first 2 years of life. They may have symptoms of anemia, such as:

  • tiredness
  • shortness of breath
  • a fast heartbeat
  • pale skin
  • yellow skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • moodiness
  • slow growth

People with beta thalassemia major or intermedia usually have a buildup of iron in the body, either from the disease itself or from the repeated blood transfusions. Excess iron can damage the heart, liver, and endocrine system.

People with beta thalassemia major may have other serious health problems, including:

  • bone deformities and broken bones from changes in the bone marrow (where RBCs are made)
  • an enlarged spleen because the organ works harder than normal. Doctors might need to remove the spleen if it gets too big.
  • infections, especially if doctors removed the spleen (the spleen helps fight some infections)

What Causes Beta Thalassemia?

Hemoglobin is made of two alpha proteins and two beta proteins. A gene change (mutation) in the alpha proteins causes alpha thalassemia. A gene change in the beta proteins causes beta thalassemia.

In beta thalassemia, the gene change causes an imbalance of hemoglobin proteins. The imbalance causes anemia because:

  • Red blood cells break down faster than normal.
  • Fewer RBCs are made.
  • Less hemoglobin is made.

The imbalance also leads to medical problems in the bones, bone marrow, and other organs.

Who Gets Beta Thalassemia?

People inherit the genes for beta thalassemia from their parents. A child gets one beta protein gene from the mother and one from the father:

  • Someone who inherits the gene change in the beta protein from one parent has beta thalassemia minor (beta thalassemia trait).
  • Someone who inherits a gene change in both beta proteins (one from each parent) has beta thalassemia intermedia or beta thalassemia major (Cooley's anemia).

Sometimes a beta thalassemia gene change can be inherited with a sickle cell gene change. This results in sickle beta thalassemia, a type of sickle cell disease. A genetic counselor can help families understand the different ways beta thalassemia runs in families.

How Is Beta Thalassemia Diagnosed?

If a woman is pregnant and both parents have beta thalassemia trait, doctors can check the fetus by:

  • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS): Done about 11 weeks into pregnancy, this involves removing a tiny piece of the placenta for testing.
  • Amniocentesis: Usually done about 16 weeks into the pregnancy, this involves removing a sample of the fluid that surrounds the fetus to check for signs of problems.

Young children may be diagnosed with a blood test if they develop anemia, have a swollen belly (from an enlarged spleen), or have poor growth. The blood tests include one or both of these:

  • hemoglobin electrophoresis
  • test for abnormal hemoglobin genes

How Is Beta Thalassemia Treated?

Treatment depends on what kind of beta thalassemia someone has.

Kids with beta thalassemia trait usually don't need treatment.

Children and adults with beta thalassemia major need lifelong medical care that includes:

  • regular blood transfusions about every 2-4 weeks
  • medicines to remove extra iron from their bodies (called chelation)

People with beta thalassemia intermedia may need blood transfusions and chelation (key-LAY-shun) but not as often as people with beta thalassemia major.

Blood transfusions and chelation do not cure beta thalassemia. A stem cell transplant can cure it, but it is a serious procedure with many risks and won't benefit everyone with the condition. Doctors and scientist are working on developing gene therapies and other treatments to help people with beta thalassemia.

How Can Parents Help Kids With Beta Thalassemia Trait?

A child who has beta thalassemia trait doesn't need any special care. Your child may want to talk to a genetic counselor someday to understand how beta thalassemia runs in families.

Be sure to tell all health care providers that your child has beta thalassemia trait. This way, when the mild anemia shows up on blood tests, the providers will know the cause.

How Can Parents Help Kids With Beta Thalassemia Intermedia or Major?

Children with beta thalassemia intermedia or major need lifelong medical care. With regular health care, kids with beta thalassemia intermedia and major can live well into their 50s. The best way for your child to live his or her healthiest life is to get regular medical care, which includes transfusions and chelation.

It is important to establish a health care team for your child. If you live near a Thalassemia Treatment Center, the center will help you put the team together. The team should include:

  • a hematologist (a doctor who specializes in blood disorders)
  • doctors to treat problems from iron overload, including:
    • an (a doctor who specializes in organs that make hormones)
    • a (heart doctor)
    • a gastrointestinal doctor (a doctor who specializes in the digestive tract)
    • an infectious disease doctor to help treat any infections
    • a dietitian to help with meal planning and any vitamin supplements that are needed
    • a primary care doctor to help with routine care
    • a case manager (a nurse or other provider who coordinates your child's medical care)
    • a social worker to help with insurance information and your child's schooling, and to support you, your child, and your family
    • a psychologist to help caregivers and your child cope with thalassemia

What Else Should I Know?

If your child has beta thalassemia intermedia or beta thalassemia major, it can be a challenge for your family to manage the medical care and the thoughts and feelings that come with the illness. It can help to:

  • Find support through:
    • your child's care team, especially the social worker or psychologist
    • other families who have a child with beta thalassemia
    • friends and family
  • Help your child see the opportunities he or she has, not the limitations.
  • Manage your own stress level by taking care of yourself and doing things that you enjoy.
  • Include siblings of the child with thalassemia. Show them that they can have a role, such as keeping their sibling company during transfusions or just being there to listen.

You also can learn more about beta thalassemia online at:

Reviewed by: Corinna L. Schultz, MD

Date reviewed: August 2019


Types of Beta Thalassemia

Beta Thalassemia | Johns Hopkins Medicine

  • Beta Thalassemia Major
  • Beta Thalassemia Intermedia
  • Beta Thalassemia Minor

If you or your child gets a diagnosis of the blood disorder beta thalassemia, it's important to find out which type it is. The kind of disease you have affects the symptoms you can expect and the treatment you'll get.

When you have beta thalassemia, your body doesn't make enough protein in red blood cells called hemoglobin. That makes it hard for oxygen to get to all of your body's cells.

There are three main types of the disease: beta thalassemia major, intermedia, and minor. All of them happen because of a mutation (change) of the HBB gene.

This is the most serious form of the disease and happens when you inherit two mutated copies of the HBB gene. Your child will ly get diagnosed with this type by the time he's 2 years old.

There's a lot to take in as a parent when your child gets a diagnosis of this type of beta thalassemia. Make sure you find people to give you support while you help your child manage the condition.

Your family and friends can be a huge help in providing you the emotional backing you need. Ask your doctor about meeting with mental health professionals if you find you are feeling stressed or anxious.

Beta thalassemia major causes severe anemia — a condition that can make you feel tired and weak. Beta thalassemia major also slows growth in infants and young children.

The spleen and liver may grow to a larger than normal size from childhood through adulthood due to a buildup of damaged red blood cells.

Your bones may become brittle and thin because the disease causes your bone marrow — the spongy center of bones — to expand.

This type of beta thalassemia can also cause adolescents to have delayed puberty. As your child becomes an adult, he'll be more ly to get diabetes. It's rare, but there's also a greater chance of getting a blood clot when your child grows into adulthood.

You'll ly need to get regular blood transfusions to manage severe anemia.

Frequent transfusions can sometimes cause too much iron to build up in your body, which can damage your liver, heart, and endocrine system — a network of glands that make hormones.

To prevent this, you may need to have your iron levels tested regularly. If too much iron has built up, you may need “iron chelation therapy” — medicines that get rid of the extra iron.

Beta thalassemia intermedia causes symptoms that are less severe than those of beta thalassemia major.
Your child may get a diagnosis when he goes to the doctor because of problems feeling extremely tired, jaundice (yellowing of the skin), or growing slower than normal.

Kids and adults with beta thalassemia intermedia may get larger spleens than normal. Puberty could start late. You or your child could get weak bones and have a greater chance of breaking them.

Since the symptoms of beta thalassemia intermedia are milder than beta thalassemia major, you ly won't need frequent blood transfusions, if you need them at all.

Sometimes called “beta thalassemia trait,” this version of the disease has few symptoms other than possible mild anemia. You might not even realize you have the disease for many years.

You may not need regular treatment for beta thalassemia minor unless you feel tired and weak.

Even though you may not have symptoms, it's still important to know that you have a defective HBB gene. If your partner also has a mutated HBB gene, you have a 1 in 4 chance of having a child with a more serious type of beta thalassemia.


Mayo Clinic: “Thalassemia.”

National Institutes of Health: “Beta Thalassemia.”

American Family Physician, “Alpha and Beta Thalassemia.”

National Center for Biotechnology Information: “GeneReviews: Beta Thalassemia.”

British Journal of Hematology: “The Era of Comparable Life Expectancy Between Thalassaemia Major and Intermedia.”

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Beta Thalassemia.”

Cooley's Anemia Foundation: “An Introduction to Beta Thalassemia Intermedia.”

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital: “Beta Thalassemia Trait.”

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