- David Bodian, 82, Leading Force In Development of Polio Vaccines
- A guide to AFM, the rare, polio- illness making young children sick
- What is AFM and what are its symptoms?
- What causes AFM?
- Does AFM have a season, the flu?
- Is AFM a new disease?
- How concerned are health experts?
- What can parents do to protect their children?
- The David Bodian Collection
- Polio Place
- Polio (Poliomyelitis)
- What causes polio?
- What raises my risk for polio?
- What are the symptoms of polio?
- How is polio diagnosed?
- How is polio treated?
- What are the complications of polio?
- Living with polio
- Can polio be prevented?
- Key points about poliomyelitis
- Next steps
David Bodian, 82, Leading Force In Development of Polio Vaccines
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September 22, 1992, Section B, Page 8Buy ReprintsTimesMachine is an exclusive benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers.
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David Bodian, a medical scientist and teacher whose work helped lay the groundwork for the Salk and Sabin polio vaccines, died Friday at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. He was 82 years old and lived in Baltimore.
He died of Parkinson's disease, said Johns Hopkins University, with which Dr. Bodian had been associated since 1939.
Dr. Bodian and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins in the 1940's and 1950's did much of the research that established that the polio virus that infected the body through the mouth and digestive tract was, in fact, three distinct viruses. Then they showed that antibodies to the virus were carried through the bloodstream. Developed Early Vaccine
The experiments carried out by Dr. Bodian, Dr. Howard Howe and Dr.
Isabel Morgan at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health established that an effective polio vaccine must have antibodies to fight all three viruses.
The researchers went on to develop a vaccine that protected monkeys against polio and a vaccine used in an early inoculation project that raised the antibody levels of children.
Born in St. Louis, Dr. Bodian received a bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago, where he also earned a doctorate in anatomy and, in 1937, a medical degree.
He joined the School of Medicine at Johns Hopkins in 1939 to teach and do research and received an additional appointment to the faculty of the School of Public Health three years later. A full professor since 1957, he was director of the department of anatomy from then until 1976 and was professor of neurobiology and professor of anatomy when he reached emeritus status in 1977.
In addition to the work on the vaccines, Dr. Bodian was credited with important contributions to the knowledge of the structure of nerve cells.
Dr. Bodian is survived by his wife of 48 years, the former Elinor Widmont; three daughters, Brenda Jean Bodian of Baltimore, Helen Bodian of New York City and Marion Bodian of Ann Arbor, Mich.
; two sons, Alexander D. of Pleasant Valley, Pa.
, and Marc of Denver; three sisters, Sara Lee Bodian of Baltimore, and Betty Bodian and Adeline Bodian, both of Chicago, and a brother, Alfred, of Washington.
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A guide to AFM, the rare, polio- illness making young children sick
A fast-acting, polio- illness has sickened 62 young children, with an average age of 4, in 22 U.S. states so far this fall.
Acute flaccid myelitis, or AFM, starts out as a respiratory condition and may quickly progress to physical disability within hours.
Some patients experience long-term paralysis requiring ongoing care, but others may fully recover, according to Carlos Pardo-Villamizar, a neurological disease expert at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine who recently authored a paper on AFM published last month in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.
“If children develop an upper-respiratory infection and there is any hint of muscle weakness, those patients need to be evaluated rapidly by a pediatrician and an emergency department.”
Neurological disease expert
The cause of AFM is unclear, leaving parents wondering how to protect their children. Pardo-Villamizar and other experts from Johns Hopkins have been sharing what they know about the outbreak and prevention with news outlets recently.
The chief takeaways? Wash your hands, cover your sneezes and coughs, and contact a doctor if your child experiences muscle weakness in the arms or legs.
What is AFM and what are its symptoms?
Acute flaccid myelitis is a rare condition that attacks the nervous system—specifically the area of the spinal cord called gray matter—causing muscles and reflexes to weaken, according to the Centers for Disease Control.
Patients may suddenly experience weakness in their arms and legs, drooping of the face and eyelids, and slurred speech, along with difficulty breathing, moving their eyes, or swallowing. “In very rare cases, it is possible that the process in the body that triggers AFM may also trigger other serious neurologic complications that could lead to death,” according to the CDC website.
What causes AFM?
AFM could be caused by one or more viruses, Pardo-Villamizar told HealthDay, with Enterovirus D68—a virus from the same family as polio—as the chief suspect. That virus was closely linked to the 2014 outbreak, he says.
The damage caused by AFM could also be caused by the immune system, Pardo-Villamizar says in an interview with Kaiser Health News. “At this moment, we don't know if it's a virus that is coming and producing direct damage of the gray matter in the spinal cord, or if a virus is triggering immunological responses that produce a secondary damage in the spinal cord.”
Does AFM have a season, the flu?
AFM outbreaks coincide with cold and flu season, so it can easily go undetected at first, says Aaron Michael Milstone, an associate epidemiologist and an associate professor of pediatrics at Hopkins.
“Just about every parent who has a young child, sometime in October or the winter, their child will have some cold or low-grade fever or something,” Milstone told HuffPost.
“They're presenting with weakness in some part of their body. It could be an arm, it could be a leg, it could be more.” he says of the patients' symptoms. “Sometimes it stops there, sometimes it progresses. And as you would expect, it's very scary for parents.”
Is AFM a new disease?
No, though the number of confirmed cases has generally been on the rise 2014. From August 2014 through September 2018, the CDC confirmed a total of 386 cases of AFM across the U.S.—120 cases in 34 states in 2014, 22 cases in 17 states in 2015, 149 cases in 39 states in 2016, and 36 cases in 16 states in 2017.
“AFM has been occurring in waves about every two years,” according to infectious disease expert Amesh A. Adalja, senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, in an interview with SELF. “It always ends up being a new news story. But this isn't something people have been ignoring. It's something they've been actively investigating since 2014.”
More than half of all U.S. states have had confirmed or possible cases this year. The states reporting confirmed cases are Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin.
States reporting suspected cases or cases under investigation are Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Washington.
How concerned are health experts?
As alarming as the news is, AFM is still unusual. The CDC estimates that less than one every one million people in the United States will get AFM each year. Pardo-Villamizar told HealthDay that most children who contract an enterovirus only suffer an upper-respiratory infection.
Priya Duggal, a genetic epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health who is studying whether some patients may have a genetic vulnerability to the virus, told Science that AFM is “pretty rare, but it's pretty devastating. And it appears that it's cyclical. It's not going away.”
What can parents do to protect their children?
There is no vaccine to prevent AFM. Experts suggest employing the same good hygiene habits used to fight off colds and flu: frequent hand-washing and covering coughs and sneezes. Parents should also watch their sick children for any signs of weakness in the arms or legs, Pardo-Villamizar told HealthDay.
“If children develop an upper-respiratory infection and there is any hint of muscle weakness, those patients need to be evaluated rapidly by a pediatrician and an emergency department,” he says. “They need to be followed very carefully, because this is a very aggressive disease. In a matter of hours, the children are paralyzed. They may need respiratory support.”
The David Bodian Collection
Home > Collections > Personal Paper Collections > The David Bodian Collection
|David Bodianby unidentified photographerblack and white photograph.|
David Bodian was born in St. Louis. He received his Ph.D. in anatomy in 1934 and his M.D. in 1937 from the University of Chicago. He came to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1939 as a research fellow in anatomy. The following year, Bodian was an assistant professor of anatomy at Western Reserve University School of Medicine.
He returned to Johns Hopkins in 1942 as a lecturer in anatomy in the school of medicine and assistant professor of epidemiology in the school of public health. In 1957, Bodian became professor of anatomy and the director of the anatomy department in the school of medicine. Along with his colleagues, Howard Howe and Isabel M.
Morgan, Bodian helped lay the groundwork for the Salk and Sabin polio vaccines through their research into the neuropathology of poliomyelitis.
Bodian's team demonstrated that the polio virus that was transmitted through the mouth and digestive tract was in fact three distinct types of virus, and they showed that antibodies to the virus were carried through the bloodstream, demonstrating that for a vaccine to be effective it must include antibodies recognizing all three types of virus.
Bodian's group also developed early poliomyelitis vaccines�first a formalin-treated vaccine that successfully immunized monkeys, and then another that significantly elevated the levels of antibodies in children. In addition, Bodian developed a technique to stain nerve fibers and nerve endings (named the Bodian stain) and made major contributions to the knowledge of the basic structure of nerve cells.
|1942 – 1992||Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health|
|1939 – 1940; 1942 – 1992||Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine|
Scope and Content
The David Bodian Collection spans most of his career at Johns Hopkins.
It contains professional correspondence, manuscripts, committee records, scientific data, slides, photos, medical illustrations, and reprints.
The correspondence and committee records document Bodian's research about the polio virus and his involvement in the nationwide effort to vaccinate America's children against polio.
Policy on Access and Use
This collection may contain some restricted records. Materials pertaining to patients, students, employees, and human research subjects, as well as unprocessed collections and recent administrative records, carry restrictions on access. For more information about the policies and procedures for access, see Policy on Access and Use.
Permissions and Credits
When citing material from this collection, credit The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. For permission to reproduce images, contact the holder of the copyright.
archives at jhmi dot edu.
Articles found at HighWire Press® Standford University. (*Asterisk denotes article is free of subscription fee.)
Historical Paper: Poliomyelitis Infection In Households: Frequency Op Vibemia And Specific Antibody Response. David Bodian, Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr., V. O. Wilson, L. A. Weed, T. B. Magath, L. A. Buie, H. E. Harrison, And L. Finberg Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1995; 142: 453 – 468.
Poliomyelitis Immune Status In Ecologically Diverse Populations, In Relation To Virus Spread, Clinical Incidence, And Virus Disappearance. Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr., David Bodian, R. T. Hyde, M. M. Potter, O. Jensen, P. V. Gharpure, N. P. Cosco, J. V. Hultin, And H. M. Rubinstein. Am. J. Epidemiol., Nov 1961; 74: 311 – 325.
Poliovirus In Chimpanzee Tissues After Virus Feeding. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1956; 64: 181 – 197. The Enhancement Of Susceptibility Of Monkeys To Polioviruses Of High And Of Low Virulence. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1956; 64: 92 – 103.
Physiological Changes in Sympathetic Ganglia Infected With Pseudorabies Virus. John Dempsher, Martin G. Larrabee, Frederik B. Bang, and David Bodian. Am J Physiol — Legacy Content, Jul 1955; 182: 203 – 216. American Academy Of Pediatrics, Inc.
Proceedings And Reports: Background For Active Immunization Against Poliomyelitis. David Bodian. Pediatrics, Jan 1955; 15: 107 – 113. Pathogenesis of Poliomyelitis.* David Bodian. Am J Public Health, Nov 1952; 42: 1388 – 1402.
Solation Of Poliomyelitis Virus From The Throats Of Symptomless Children. Howard A. Howe and David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Mar 1947; 45: 219 – 222.
Poliomyelitis In An Uninoculated Rhesus Monkey, And In Orally Inoculated Monkeys, Receiving Desoxypyridoxine. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1948; 48.
Differentiation Of Types Of Poliomyelitis Viruses: I. Reinfection Experiments In Monkeys (Second Attacks). David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Mar 1949; 49: 200 – 224.
Differentiation Of Types Of Poliomyelitis Viruses: Iii. The Grouping Of Fourteen Strains Into Three Basic Immunological Types. David Bodian, Isabel M. Morgan, and Howard A. Howe. Am. J. Epidemiol., Mar 1949; 49: 234 – 247.
Virus And Host Factors Influencing The Titer Of Lansing Poliomyelitis Virus In Monkeys, Cotton Rats And Mice. David Bodian, Isabel M. Morgan, and C. E. Schwerdt. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1950; 51: 126 – 133.
Subclinical Poliomyelitis In The Chimpanzee And Its Relation To Alimentary Reinfection. Howard A. Howe, David Bodian, and Isabel M. Morgan. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1950; 51: 85 – 108.
Second Attacks Of Paralytic Poliomyelitis In Human Beings In Relation To Immunity, Virus Types And Virulence: With A Report Of Two Cases, And Four Other Individuals Baltimore, 1944, Infected With Virus Of The Leon Type. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Sep 1951; 54: 174 – 190.
Experimental Studies On Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: I. Protection With Human Gamma Globulin Against Intramuscular Inoculation, And Combined Passive And Active Immunization. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1951;54:132 -143.
Experimental Studies On Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: II. The Prophylactic Effect Of Human Gamma Globulin On Paralytic Poliomyelitis In Gynomolgus Monkeys After Virus Feeding. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1952; 56: 78 – 89.
A Reconsideration Of The Pathogenesis Of Poliomyelitis. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., May 1952; 55: 414 – 438.
Experimental Studies On Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: Ii Passive-Active Immunization And Pathogenesis After Virus Feeding In Chimpanzees. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1953; 58: 81 – 100.
Viremia In Experimental Poliomyelitis: Ii. Viremia And The Mechanism Of The “Provoking” Effect Of Injections Or Trauma. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Nov 1954; 60: 358 – 370.
Viremia In Experimental Poliomyelitis: I. General Aspects Of Infection After Intravascular Inoculation With Strains Of High And Of Low Invasiveness. David Bodian. Am. J. Epidemiol., Nov 1954; 60: 339 – 357.
Poliomyelitis Infection In Households: Frequency Of Viremia And Specific Antibody Response. David Bodian and Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1954;60:8398.
The Spread Of Poliomyelitis: An Analysis Of Contact During Epidemic Periods. Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr., Viktor O. Wilson, David Bodian, and James Watt. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jul 1954; 60: 63 – 82.
Chronic progressive poliomyelitis secondary to vaccination of an immunodeficient child. LE Davis, D Bodian, D Price, IJ Butler, and JH Vickers. N. Engl. J. Med., Aug 1977; 297: 241 – 245.
Emerging Concept of Poliomyelitis Infection. David Bodian. Science, Jul 1955; 122: 105 108.
Poliomyelitis Immunization: Mass use of oral vaccine in the United States might prevent definitive evaluation of either vaccine. David Bodian. Science, Sep 1961; 134: 819 – 822.
Articles found at ScienceDirect.com
Electron microscopic atlas of the simian cochlea. Hearing Research. David Bodian. Volume 9, Issue 2, February 1983, Pages 201-207.
Simplified method of dispersion of monkey kidney cells with trypsin Virology. David Bodian. Volume 2, Issue 4, August 1956, Pages 575-576 Histopathologic basis of clinical findings in poliomyelitis. David Bodian. The American Journal of Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 5, May 1949, Pages 563-578.
A note on the penetration of poliomyelitis virus from the gastrointestinal tract in the chimpanzee. Howard A. Howe and David Bodian. The Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 21, Issue 6, December 1942, Pages 713-716 .
Articles found at JSTOR
Reviewed Work(s): Neurology of the Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat by E. A. Spiegel; I. Sommer Author(s) of Review: David Bodian The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 20, No. 2 (Jun., 1945), p. 179
Reviewed Work(s): Die Elemente der Nervosen Tatigkeit by A. E. Kornmuller Author(s) of Review: David Bodian The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 25, No. 1 (Mar., 1950), pp.
99-100 Reviewed Work(s): Explorer of the Human Brain. The Life of Santiago Ramon y Caja.l (1852-1934) by Dorothy F. Cannon Author(s) of Review: David Bodian The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 25, No. 1 (Mar.
, 1950), pp. 65-66
Reviewed Work(s): The Neuron. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. Vol. XVII. Author(s) of Review: Chandler McC. Brooks The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 29, No. 1 (Mar., 1954), pp. 84-85 (David Bodian mentioned in review.)
Reviewed Work(s): Praktikum der Vergleichenden Zoohistologie by Heinz Ludtke Author(s) of Review: David Bodian The Quarterly Review of Biology > Vol. 40, No. 2 (Jun., 1965), p. 211
Presynaptic Organelles and Junctional Integrity. David Bodian. The Journal of Cell Biology > Vol. 48, No. 3 (Mar., 1971), pp. 707-711
A Survey of Dehydrogenases in Various Epithelial Cells in the Rat. Donald G. Walker. The Journal of Cell Biology > Vol. 17, No. 2 (May, 1963), pp. 255-277
An Electron Microscopic Characterization of Classes of Synaptic Vesicles by Means of Controlled Aldehyde Fixation. David Bodian. The Journal of Cell Biology > Vol. 44, No. 1 (Jan., 1970), pp. 115-124
Needs, Leads, and Indicators. Robert S. Morison. Science, Technology, & Human Values > Vol. 7, No. 38 (Winter, 1982), pp. 5-13 Sex and Age Determination in the Opossum. George A. Petrides. Journal of Mammalogy > Vol. 30, No. 4 (Nov., 1949), pp. 364-378
The Ultrastructure and Histophysiology of Human Eccrine Sweat Glands. Bryce L. Munger. The Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology Vol. 11, No. 2 (Nov., 1961), pp. 385-402
Edward George Gray 11 January 1924–14 August 1999. R. W. Guillery. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society > Vol. 48 (Dec., 2002), pp. 151-165
Scientific News and Notes of Academy Interest. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science (1903-) > Vol. 53, No. 4 (Dec., 1950), pp. 445-451
Program, Eighty-Third Annual Meeting, Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence, Kansas, May 3,4 and 5, 1951 Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science (1903-) > Vol. 54, No. 2 (Jun., 1951), pp. 247-258
Ninety-Ninth Critical Bibliography of the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences (to January 1974). John Neu. Isis > Vol. 65, No. 5, Ninety-Ninth Critical Bibliography (1974), pp. 5-165+167-206.
One-Hundredth Critical Bibliography of the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences (to January 1975)
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Previous generations of Americans had reason to fear poliomyelitis, most often called polio.
The disease, which is spread by a virus, can cause paralysis. The disease is now rare in the U.S. because of a vaccine against the virus. However, polio still exists in a few countries.
People who have not been vaccinated can get it while traveling to a region where the disease still happens.
Polio can take several different forms:
- Inapparent polio. Most cases are this type. When people have this form, they don't have symptoms. But they can still pass the virus on to other people.
- Cases with mild symptoms. People with this form may have a mild illness with symptoms similar to those from the flu. But the illness doesn't appear to affect the brain. People with this form usually recover within a week.
- Paralytic polio. This type includes weakness that develops quickly and turns into paralysis.
What causes polio?
Polio is spread through the feces or mucus of people infected with the virus. In about 1 in 200 cases, people who have polio become paralyzed. The paralysis usually affects the legs, and it is permanent. Polio usually affects children under age 5. The disease is more common in the summer and the fall.
What raises my risk for polio?
You are at increased risk for polio if you:
- Have not received the polio vaccination
- Were exposed to someone infected with the virus
What are the symptoms of polio?
Polio can cause a variety of symptoms. Depending on the severity of the case, these can include:
- Neck stiffness
- Pain in the arms and legs
- Difficulty breathing, swallowing, or speaking
How is polio diagnosed?
A healthcare provider may diagnose polio by checking your stool or throat for poliovirus. He or she may also want to do a spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture) to get a sample of your spinal fluid to examine.
How is polio treated?
Polio cannot be cured. Healthcare providers focus on treating symptoms. They may also provide medicine, including pain medicine, and suggest bed rest. Some people with polio can't breathe on their own will need a machine called a ventilator to help them breathe.
What are the complications of polio?
The complications of polio can vary.
- Most people recover without complications
- Some people may develop muscle weakness
- A few people will have permanent muscle paralysis
Living with polio
Many people who have had polio develop a condition called post-polio syndrome decades later. Symptoms can include new muscle weakness and fatigue. Some people may have muscle shrinkage. Most people who didn't have severe symptoms from polio don't have severe symptoms from this problem. If you have this condition, exercise and stretching may help you feel better.
Can polio be prevented?
Being vaccinated against polio offers protection from the disease. Children should receive a series of vaccines starting in infancy.
If you're an adult going to a country where cases are still happening, you may need to be vaccinated. Adults can have a three-dose series of vaccines.
This may be needed in people who haven't been fully vaccinated or don't know if they have been.
People with certain immune problems can catch the disease from a child who has recently been vaccinated with oral polio vaccine. This type of vaccine is no longer used in the U.S.
Key points about poliomyelitis
- Polio is rare in the United States but continues to happen in some countries.
- It can be prevented with the polio vaccination.
- If you are going to travel to a country where polio happens, make sure you are properly vaccinated against it.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.