Vestibular Migraine

How to Tell if Vestibular Migraines Are Why You Get Dizzy So Often

Vestibular Migraine | Johns Hopkins Medicine

The prodrome happens one or two days before the actual migraine strikes, and it can cause symptoms constipation, mood changes, food cravings, neck stiffness, increased thirst and urination, and yawning a lot, the Mayo Clinic says.

Aura may follow, usually involving sight-related disturbances flashes of light or wavy, zigzag vision. (In a phenomenon known as ocular migraine, some people experience migraines that mainly involve these kinds of visual disturbances, often without the head pain.

) However, aura can also cause other sensory issues, pins and needles, weakness or numbness in the face or one side of the body, or hearing things that don’t exist, the Mayo Clinic says.

Whichever type you have, aura tends to last between 20 and 60 minutes, according to the Mayo Clinic.

For some people, after the aura comes the attack, which is that part of the migraine that can involve throbbing or pulsing pain on one side or both sides of your head, nausea and vomiting, blurry vision, lightheadedness, fainting, and sensitivity to light, sounds, and possibly smells and touch. If you have vestibular migraines, this is where those symptoms dizziness and vertigo come in. The attack can last anywhere from four hours to a whopping 72 hours, the Mayo Clinic says.

After the attack, some people make their way through the post-drome, which can cause you to feel drained, confused, moody, dizzy, and weak if you’re unlucky, but possibly elated if you’re fortunate, the Mayo Clinic says. Some people still have some residual sensitivity to light and sound at this point.

What even causes vestibular migraines, and who’s most ly to get them?

Neurologists don’t know exactly why vestibular migraines happen, but there are some theories. One is that hyperactivity of the neurons in your brainstem can overstimulate your vestibular system, the part of your inner ear that’s involved in your balance, Dr. Carroll says.

Another is that certain triggers can make your blood vessels dilate, setting off the release of inflammatory chemicals that trigger migraine symptoms, she says.

It also seems as though, much with classic migraines, the trigeminal nerve that interprets sensation in your head and face may be involved somewhere in the process.

Just classic migraines, anyone can get the vestibular kind, Daniel Franc, M.D., Ph.D., a neurologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California, tells SELF. And, again, much with classic migraines (you’ll notice a pattern here), the vestibular form tends to run in families, Johns Hopkins Medicine says.

Women are also more vulnerable than men in the face of vestibular migraines, which is no surprise, since women are around three times more ly to grapple with migraines in general, the Mayo Clinic says.

This is ly due at least in part to the role that hormonal changes involved in menstruation, pregnancy, and birth control can play in bringing on or exacerbating migraines.

How do you actually get diagnosed with vestibular migraines?

Here’s where things get a little weird: The majority of people with vestibular migraines don’t have the dizziness at the same time as the headache, and that’s if they have a headache at all, Johns Hopkins Medicine says.

Because of that, it may be easy for doctors to confuse the symptoms with those of other health conditions benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (one of the most common causes of vertigo), Meniere’s disease (a disorder of the inner ear that causes episodes where you feel you're spinning), and a transient ischemic attack (a temporary blockage of bloodflow to the brain).

Source: https://www.self.com/story/vestibular-migraine-facts

Migraine Headaches

Vestibular Migraine | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Individual migraines are moderate to severe in intensity, often characterized by a throbbing or pounding feeling. Although they are frequently one-sided, they may occur anywhere on the head, neck and face — or all over.

At their worst, they are typically associated with sensitivity to light, noise and/or smells. Nausea is one of the most common symptoms and it worsens with activity, which often results in patient disability.

In many respects, migraines are much alcohol-related hangovers.

Migraine pain can be felt in the face, where it may be mistaken for sinus headache — or in the neck, where it may be mistaken for arthritis or muscle spasm.

Complicating the diagnosis of migraine is that the headaches may be accompanied by other “sinus ” symptoms, including watering eyes, nasal congestion and a sense of facial pressure.

Most patients who think they have sinus headache in fact have migraines.

In up to 25 percent of patients, the migraine headache pain may be preceded by an aura, a temporary neurological syndrome that slowly progresses and then typically resolves just as the pain begins.

While the most common type of migraine aura involves visual disturbances (flashing lights, zigzags, blind spots), many people experience numbness, confusion, trouble speaking, vertigo (spinning dizziness) and other stroke neurological symptoms.

Some patients may experience auras without headaches.

How prevalent are migraines?

Migraines are about three times more common in women than men, and may affect more than 12 percent of the U.S. adult population. Migraines often run in families, and can start as early as elementary school but most often in early adulthood.

They often fade away later in life, but can strike at any time. The most common cause of recurring, disabling headache pain, migraines are also the most common underlying cause of disabling chronic, daily headache pain. While migraines are the No.

1 reason that patients see a neurologist, most cases are handled by primary care physicians.

What triggers a migraine?

Things that can make the headaches more ly to occur include:

  • Alcohol
  • Weather changes
  • Lack of sleep
  • Schedule changes
  • Dehydration
  • Hunger
  • Certain foods
  • Strong smells
  • Teeth grinding at night
  • Menstruation

How are migraines diagnosed?

Despite their dramatic symptoms, migraines are almost never due to an underlying problem that will show up on any testing, even on brain MRIs. Many experts do not recommend brain imaging at all, even in severe cases, as long as the patient's symptoms are typical for migraines and a thorough neurological examination is normal.

There are extremely rare families that have migraines as a result of a single genetic mutation in one of four known genes that can lead to the condition called familial hemiplegic migraine. There are no genetic tests for the vast majority of patients. Because the condition cannot be diagnosed by scan or blood test, the diagnosis is “clinical” — made by an experienced physician.

How are migraines treated?

Migraines that are severe, frequent or accompanied by neurological symptoms are best treated preventively, usually with a combination of dietary modification, lifestyle changes, vitamins and daily prescription medications.

Most of our best preventive medications are often used for other medical purposes as well; the majority are blood pressure drugs, antidepressants or epilepsy medications.

Individual headache attacks are best treated early, often with one or more of the following types of medications: triptans, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-emetics (anti-nausea), and sometimes narcotics or steroids.

Migraines typically last a few hours to a couple of days and respond well to specific treatments. However, in some patients, the migraine is particularly severe and long-lasting — and may even become chronic, occurring continuously for weeks, months or even years.

If improperly managed or left untreated, intermittent migraines may essentially transform into a chronic daily headache, with continuous and smoldering symptoms that periodically erupt into a “full-blown” migraine. This condition is extremely difficult to treat.

Other patients may develop increasingly frequent headaches as a result of overusing their short-acting headache medications. See medication overuse headache.

While they are considered primary headaches, meaning they have no known underlying cause, migraines are associated with an increased risk of stroke, brain scarring as seen on MRI scans, a heart defect called a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and other medical conditions.

At the Johns Hopkins Headache Center, located at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical center, we have expert physical therapists, nutritionists and psychologists who work closely with our neurologists to help manage patients with frequent migraines. Biofeedback and relaxation techniques are available to complement our standard medical treatments.

Source: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/headache/migraine-headaches

Jeffrey Sharon, MD

Vestibular Migraine | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Neurotologist
Otologist
Skull base surgeon

Dr. Jeffrey Sharon is an otologist (ear specialist), neurotologist (specialist in neurological ear disorders) and skull base surgeon. Director of the UCSF Balance and Falls Center, he specializes in cochlear implants (devices surgically placed in the inner ear to help patients who are deaf perceive sound).

He also has expertise in treating dizziness, vertigo, hearing loss and ear infections, as well as rare or complicated ear disorders, such as cholesteatoma, vestibular schwannoma, otosclerosis and superior canal dehiscence (a problem with a bone in the inner ear, leading to hearing and balance problems).

Sharon has conducted and published research on several topics related to hearing and balance disorders.

This includes patient safety in lateral skull base surgery, the use of MRI in cochlear implantation and osteoradionecrosis of the skull base (an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the head and neck).

He is especially interested in studying outcomes after treatment for vestibular disorders, and he has published studies looking at outcomes after surgery for superior canal dehiscence.

After receiving his medical degree from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Sharon completed a residency in otolaryngology at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, a teaching affiliate of Washington University in St. Louis. He completed a fellowship in otology, neurotology and skull base surgery at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

Sharon is a member of the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, American Auditory Society and American Neurotology Society.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai 2009

Residencies

Washington University in St. Louis, Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 2014

Fellowships

Johns Hopkins Medicine, Otology, Neurotology and Skull Base Surgery 2016

  1. Formeister EJ, Rizk HG, Kohn MA, Sharon JD. The Epidemiology of Vestibular Migraine: A Population-based Survey Study. Otol Neurotol. 2018 Jul 16.
  2. Pross SE, Ward BK, Sharon JD, Weinreich HM, Aygun N, Francis HW. A Prospective Study of Pain From Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Cochlear Implant Magnets In Situ. Otol Neurotol. 2018 Feb; 39(2):e80-e86.
  3. Naert L, Van de Berg R, Van de Heyning P, Bisdorff A, Sharon JD, Ward BK, Van Rompaey V. Aggregating the symptoms of superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome. Laryngoscope. 2017 Dec 27.
  4. Zenga J, Sharon JD, Gross J, Gantz J, Pipkorn P. Soft palate reconstruction after radionecrosis: Combined anterolateral thigh adipofascial and nasoseptal flaps.

    Auris Nasus Larynx. 2017 Nov 13.

  5. Alkhafaji MS, Varma S, Pross SE, Sharon JD, Nellis JC, Santina CCD, Minor LB, Carey JP. Long-Term Patient-Reported Outcomes After Surgery for Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome. Otol Neurotol. 2017 Oct; 38(9):1319-1326.
  6. Xie Y, Sharon JD, Pross SE, Abt NB, Varma S, Della Santina CC, Minor LB, Carey JP.

    Surgical Complications from Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Repair: Two Decades of Experience. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 Aug; 157(2):273-280.

  7. Pross SE, Sharon JD, Lim M, Moghekar A, Rao A, Carey JP. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension after Vestibular Schwannoma Resection Due to an Unexpected Pathology: Tarlov Cysts. Cureus. 2017 May 19; 9(5):e1261.

  8. Nellis JC, Sharon JD, Pross SE, Ishii LE, Ishii M, Dey JK, Francis HW. Multifactor Influences of Shared Decision-Making in Acoustic Neuroma Treatment. Otol Neurotol. 2017 Mar; 38(3):392-399.
  9. Sharon JD, Northcutt BG, Aygun N, Francis HW. Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5 Tesla With a Cochlear Implant Magnet in Place: Image Quality and Usability.

    Otol Neurotol. 2016 10; 37(9):1284-90.

  10. Sharon JD, Carey JP, Schubert MC. Upbeat nystagmus after bilateral superior canal plugging: A peripheral cause of vertical nystagmus. Laryngoscope. 2017 Jul; 127(7):1698-1700.
  11. Sharon JD, Pross SE, Ward BK, Carey JP. Revision Surgery for Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome. Otol Neurotol. 2016 09; 37(8):1096-103.

  12. Sharon JD, Kraus CL, Ehrenburg M, Weinreich HM, Francis HW. Risk Assessment and Prevention of Corneal Complications After Lateral Skull Base Surgery. Otol Neurotol. 2016 09; 37(8):1148-54.
  13. Kochhar A, Albathi M, Sharon JD, Ishii LE, Byrne P, Boahene KD.

    Transposition of the Intratemporal Facial to Hypoglossal Nerve for Reanimation of the Paralyzed Face: The VII to XII TranspositionTechnique. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2016 Sep 01; 18(5):370-8.

  14. Nieman CL, Weinreich HM, Sharon JD, Chien WW, Francis HW.

    Use of Pericranial Flap Coverage in Cochlear Implantation of the Radical Cavity: Rationale, Technique, and Experience. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 09; 155(3):533-7.

  15. Meiklejohn DA, Corrales CE, Boldt BM, Sharon JD, Yeom KW, Carey JP, Blevins NH. Pediatric Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: Radiographic and Histologic Prevalence, With Clinical Correlation.

    Otol Neurotol. 2015 Sep; 36(8):1383-9.

  16. Zenga J, Sharon JD, Santiago P, Nussenbaum B, Haughey BH, Fox IK, Myckatyn TM, Diaz JA, Chicoine MR. Lower Trapezius Flap for Reconstruction of Posterior Scalp and Neck Defects after Complex Occipital-Cervical Surgeries. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2015 Sep; 76(5):397-408.

  17. Sharon JD, Trevino C, Schubert MC, Carey JP. Treatment of Menière's Disease. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2015 Apr; 17(4):341.
  18. Desai SC, Sand JP, Sharon JD, Branham G, Nussenbaum B. Scalp reconstruction: an algorithmic approach and systematic review. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2015 Jan-Feb; 17(1):56-66.
  19. Sharon JD, Khwaja SS, Drescher A, Gay H, Chole RA. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone: a case series. Otol Neurotol. 2014 Aug; 35(7):1207-17.
  20. Neely JG, Paniello RC, Graboyes EM, Sharon JD, Grindler DJ, Nussenbaum B. Practical guide to understanding clinical research compliance. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 May; 150(5):716-21.

Publications are derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and provided by UCSF Profiles, a service of the Clinical & Translational Science Institute (CTSI) at UCSF. Researchers can make corrections and additions to their publications by logging on to UCSF Profiles.

Source: https://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/jeffrey.sharon

What exactly are vestibular migraines, and what are the most common symptoms?

Vestibular migraines are a neurological condition that center around symptoms dizziness and vertigo and may or may not come with head pain, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. Here are the main vestibular migraine symptoms you should know:

  • Dizziness: It’s not unusual to feel woozy or lightheaded during a migraine. This is thought to be because of heightened sensitivity in your inner ear as the migraine happens, Katherine S. Carroll, M.D., a neurologist and migraine expert at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, tells SELF. You might even feel unsteady on your feet.
  • Vertigo: This symptom is essentially a kind of dizziness that happens when you feel the room or your own body is spinning, and it’s a big tip-off that someone may have vestibular migraines, Amit Sachdev, M.D., an assistant professor and director of neuromuscular medicine at Michigan State University, tells SELF.
  • Nausea and vomiting: The mechanism behind why migraines can cause these symptoms isn’t totally clear, but unfortunately they can come along with the territory when you have a condition that involves dizziness, Dr. Sachdev says.
  • Sensitivity to light, smell, and noise: These are typical migraine symptoms that might accompany your vestibular migraine experience, or you may be lucky enough to skip them.
  • A headache…maybe: You may or may not have head pain when you have vestibular migraines. If you do, the pain might be severe, throbbing, and affect one or both sides of your head. “Currently, it is unknown why some patients get the headache with the vertigo, and others do not,” Gail Ishiyama, M.D., professor of neurology at the Reed Neurological Research Center at the UCLA School of Medicine, tells SELF.

People with vestibular migraines can have specific triggers that bring on these symptoms, changes in sleep patterns, menstruation, and foods chocolate, ripened or aged cheese, and red wine, Johns Hopkins Medicine says.

How do vestibular migraines differ from classic migraines?

The main differences between a vestibular migraine and a classic migraine are that the vestibular version is dominated by a feeling of dizziness and vertigo and might not involve head pain, Neil Cherian, M.D., a neurologist at the Center for Neuro-Restoration at Cleveland Clinic, tells SELF. Otherwise, they can be pretty similar, including in their progression.

Migraines can follow a pattern that moves through four stages: prodrome, aura, headache, and post-drome (also called the migraine hangover), the Mayo Clinic says. One person with migraines may deal with this exact progression every single time, while another may have more of a mix-and-match experience that involves some aspects but not others.

The prodrome happens one or two days before the actual migraine strikes, and it can cause symptoms constipation, mood changes, food cravings, neck stiffness, increased thirst and urination, and yawning a lot, the Mayo Clinic says.

Aura may follow, usually involving sight-related disturbances flashes of light or wavy, zigzag vision. (In a phenomenon known as ocular migraine, some people experience migraines that mainly involve these kinds of visual disturbances, often without the head pain.

) However, aura can also cause other sensory issues, pins and needles, weakness or numbness in the face or one side of the body, or hearing things that don’t exist, the Mayo Clinic says.

Whichever type you have, aura tends to last between 20 and 60 minutes, according to the Mayo Clinic.

For some people, after the aura comes the attack, which is that part of the migraine that can involve throbbing or pulsing pain on one side or both sides of your head, nausea and vomiting, blurry vision, lightheadedness, fainting, and sensitivity to light, sounds, and possibly smells and touch. If you have vestibular migraines, this is where those symptoms dizziness and vertigo come in. The attack can last anywhere from four hours to a whopping 72 hours, the Mayo Clinic says.

After the attack, some people make their way through the post-drome, which can cause you to feel drained, confused, moody, dizzy, and weak if you’re unlucky, but possibly elated if you’re fortunate, the Mayo Clinic says. Some people still have some residual sensitivity to light and sound at this point.

What even causes vestibular migraines, and who’s most ly to get them?

Neurologists don’t know exactly why vestibular migraines happen, but there are some theories. One is that hyperactivity of the neurons in your brainstem can overstimulate your vestibular system, the part of your inner ear that’s involved in your balance, Dr. Carroll says.

Another is that certain triggers can make your blood vessels dilate, setting off the release of inflammatory chemicals that trigger migraine symptoms, she says.

It also seems as though, much with classic migraines, the trigeminal nerve that interprets sensation in your head and face may be involved somewhere in the process.

Just classic migraines, anyone can get the vestibular kind, Daniel Franc, M.D., Ph.D., a neurologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California, tells SELF. And, again, much with classic migraines (you’ll notice a pattern here), the vestibular form tends to run in families, Johns Hopkins Medicine says.

Women are also more vulnerable than men in the face of vestibular migraines, which is no surprise, since women are around three times more ly to grapple with migraines in general, the Mayo Clinic says.

This is ly due at least in part to the role that hormonal changes involved in menstruation, pregnancy, and birth control can play in bringing on or exacerbating migraines.

Here’s where things get a little weird: The majority of people with vestibular migraines don’t have the dizziness at the same time as the headache, and that’s if they have a headache at all, Johns Hopkins Medicine says.

Because of that, it may be easy for doctors to confuse the symptoms with those of other health conditions benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (one of the most common causes of vertigo), Meniere’s disease (a disorder of the inner ear that causes episodes where you feel you're spinning), and a transient ischemic attack (a temporary blockage of bloodflow to the brain).

Unfortunately, there’s no clear-cut test for vestibular migraines. If your doctor suspects that this is your issue, they may ask you diagnostic questions that are spelled out in the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD), Dr. Franc says. People with vestibular migraines usually meet the following criteria, as outlined in the ICHD:

  • At least five moderate or severe vertigo episodes lasting five minutes to 72 hours.
  • At least half of episodes have included at least one of the following:
  • Sensitivity to light or sound
  • A visual aura
  • A headache that feels it’s centered on one side of the head, feels it’s pulsing, the intensity is moderate or severe, and it gets worse with physical activity
  • A past history of migraines with or without aura
  • No other diagnosed condition that explains the symptoms

Your doctor may also order some tests to check for other health conditions, blood tests to look for blood vessel problems, an MRI or CT scan to rule out stroke, brain tumor, and other neurological conditions, or a spinal tap to weed out infections, bleeding in the brain, or another underlying condition, the Mayo Clinic says.

What can doctors do to treat vestibular migraines?

Treatment for vestibular and classic migraines is pretty similar, Dr. Carroll says. In general, you can think of treatment options in two categories: pain relievers and preventive drugs.

Pain relievers include over-the-counter options aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen, along with drugs that are specifically made to treat migraines.

There are also medicines called triptans, which make your blood vessels constrict and affect your pain threshold, and ergots, which reduce transmission of the pain messages in your nerve fibers, according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Other pain-relieving options are out there, too.

What’s best for you can differ from what’s best for others with migraines, so it’s smart to have an in-depth conversation with your doctor before just choosing a migraine medication on your own.

When it comes to prevention, your doctor might recommend drugs beta blockers and calcium channel blockers, which both work on blood vessels, Dr. Sachdev says. Beta blockers may reduce the frequency and severity of migraines, and calcium channel blockers can help prevent migraines altogether, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Tricyclic and some other antidepressants can also be helpful, potentially cutting back on how often you get migraines by affecting your levels of serotonin and other brain chemicals, the Mayo Clinic says. Much with pain relievers, there are other kinds of preventive drugs that may work for your migraines, so check in with your doctor for guidance.

Keep in mind that no one medication is guaranteed to work for everyone with vestibular migraines. “Migraine is a complex disorder which we do not fully understand,” Dr. Cherian says. “Medications may be helpful to treat migraine, though they do not help in every patient.”

That’s why, along with medication, you may need to treat your migraines in other ways. This may include things sticking with a regular sleep pattern and reducing your stress if possible, Dr. Ishiyama says.

You may also want to explore whether or not exercise might help your migraines, although workouts can actually trigger migraines in some people, so you should be on the lookout for any pattern indicating that connection may be at play.

If you do indeed have vestibular migraines, treating them may involve some trial-and-error, but it’s worth it to finally feel you’re back on solid ground.

Related:

Source: https://sports.yahoo.com/tell-vestibular-migraines-why-dizzy-224231872.html

The Science of Vertigo

Vestibular Migraine | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Brain Talk: Brain Talk Podcast

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The Science of Vertigo
David S. Zee, M.D.Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology,

Neuroscience

In general our research focuses on the ubiquitous and vexing problems experienced by patients who have dizziness and vertigo.  We combine investigations in normal subjects and patients as we attempt to ferret out key principals for better diagnosis and treatments.

Last year we published a landmark paper with an Italian colleague describing and explaining an amazing phenomenon. EVERBODY who lies in a strong MRI machine gets a nystagmus (involuntary jerking of the eyes) and some dizziness from activation of the inner ear labyrinth.

  We discovered the physical mechanism (Lorenz forces or static hydrodynamic forces) and are now testing how to use this new way to test labyrinthine function by examining effects in normal subjects and in patients, as well as consider the potential to use magnetic fields as a potential rehabilitation tool.

More recently we have also used another technique magnetic fields called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which is a noninvasive way to stimulate a tiny part of the brain through the intact skull and temporarily inhibit its function.

We have attacked the problem of the disturbed, disabling and distressing perceptions about whether they are upright or tilted which patients with inner ear labyrinthine and more central brain disorders can have and the consequent imbalance they experience.

TMS allows us to stimulate a focal part of the brain, transiently inhibit its function and see how this influences higher-level integration of sensations that normally allow us to create a stable perception of the world.

We measure the influence of these mini transient interruptions on one’s ability to decide what is upright by having the subject report on how upright a line looks.

Our results so far indicate that a very small area of the brain is crucial for this and in particular this area functions most when we are faced with conflicting information about where we are (for example if our head it titled but our body is not). We call this making the correct coordinate transformations to achieve the necessary coherence amongst information from our eyes, our neck muscles and joints and our inner ears. We hope to develop this technique as a diagnostic test for patients with complicated perceptual problems and to give clues as to how we might rehabilitate them (for example with Tai Chi or Qi Gong exersises).

Dr. Zee began his scientific career at The Johns Hopkins University in 1965 as a medical student. His special interests are in eye movements, cerebellar function and motor learning, and vestibular disorders.

His research combines studies in experimental models of disease, and in human patients and normal subjects, all aimed at understanding brain function and neurological disease. He has been Professor of Neurology, Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology and Neuroscience at Johns Hopkins since 1985.

In 1994 he received the Ottorino Rossi prize from the University of Pavia in Italy and the Hallpike-Nylen Medal of the Barany Society in Uppsala, Sweden.

He gave the inaugural Swithin Meadows Lecture at the National Hospital in London in 1995, the inaugural Houston Merritt Lecture of the American Academy of Neurology in 2003, the inaugural Alfred Kestenbaum Lecture in Wurzburg, Germany in 2005 and he was the inaugural Visiting Neurology Educator at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota in 1980.

He won the Johns Hopkins Professor’s clinical teaching award in 2002. He was the annual “Visiting Brain Scholar” in England in 2006. This year he gave the Lord Adrian lecture in Cambridge, England and the Michael Sanders Lecture at the Royal Society in London and was the Irwin Levy visiting Professor at Washington University, St. Louis. He is the coauthor of the textbook, The Neurology of Eye Movements with Dr. R. John Leigh, now in its fourth edition. He has had continuous NIH funding for his research since 1975. Learn more about Dr. Zee

Additional Information:

Read “Researchers Pinpoint the Cause of MRI Vertigo” – Johns Hopkins Press Release

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Source: https://www.brainscienceinstitute.org/brain_talk/the_science_of_vertigo