Surgical Pathology

Lead Histopath Tech/Surgical Pathology

Surgical Pathology | Johns Hopkins Medicine

The Lead Histopath Tech reports to Supervisor and is responsible for the overall daily operation of assigned laboratory. Responsible for the monitoring, prioritizing and distribution of work, to insure a smooth, safe and efficient workflow to meet turnaround time requirements while adhering to standard operating procedures.

Insures personnel scheduling, payroll, shift-to-shift communication, quality control, inventory, equipment maintenance, and conformance with the division’s quality assurance program. Assists in the training of new employees as well as the development and revision of laboratory policies and procedures. Manages staff attendance, productivity, break and lunch schedules.

Acts as a resource for the lab, answering questions, and resolving problems. Prepares tissue samples for microscopic examination by a pathologist. Participates with Supervisor in the evaluating of employees.

Full-time, Evening Shift8:00 p.m. – 4:30 a.m.

Weekend Work RequiredWork Location: Weinberg 2242, 401 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21231EducationRequires a minimum Associate’s degree in Histotechnology or Bachelor’s degree in Allied Health, Biology, or related field.

Coursework must include at least 60 semester hours, 12 hours of biology and chemistry (combination of both). Completion of NAACLS accredited Histology program or program that grants HT certification eligibility.

Required Licensure, Certification, Etc.HT(ASCP) or HTL (ASCP) is required.

Work ExperienceA minimum of 5 years’ experience including demonstrated leadership experience as a Histology Technician/Technologist is required.

“Johns Hopkins Hospital is a Smoke Free Campus”Johns Hopkins Health System and its affiliates are drug-free workplace employers.

Johns Hopkins Health System and its affiliates are an Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action employers.

All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, age, national origin, mental or physical disability, genetic information, veteran status, or any other status protected by federal, state, or local law.

  • Not Applicable
  • Full-time
  • Health Care Provider
  • Hospital & Health Care

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Johns Hopkins Hospital – Postgraduate Surgical Residency for PAs

Surgical Pathology | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Johns Hopkins Hospital – Postgraduate Surgical Residency for PAsView Website
 (410) 502-2651 600 N. Wolfe Street, Halsted 600Baltimore, MD 21287
The Johns Hopkins Hospital Department of Surgery Postgraduate Surgical Residency is a 12-month program involving all aspects of patient care. Albert Chi, MD,  is the Medical Director of the program.  Jennie McKown, MSHS, PA-C, is the director. Martha Kennedy, Ph.D., RN, ACNP, is the educational coordinator for the program. The JHH Postgraduate Surgical Residency for Physician Assistants has been accredited by the ARC-PA since March 2008. Further details provided on the ARC-PA website.

Our mission is to provide an educational environment whereby the Certified Surgical Physician Assistant is trained in the highest level of patient care.

Training will be provided in clinics, on the surgical floors, and in the operating room and will involve pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative care. In an academic environment, the residents will be exposed to basic and advanced surgical training concepts and techniques.

Under appropriate supervision, the resident will gain the confidence and experience necessary to practice in a wide variety of surgical specialties in academic and private settings.

Residency Description

Residents will rotate through a variety of surgical specialties and undergo intense training in perioperative management and surgical practice, with clinical time bridging between patient management (~75%; inpatient, clinic, consults) and OR time (~25%; position/prep/drape, first assist, second assist).

Core rotations include Hepatobiliary, Vascular, Trauma, Plastic and Reconstructive, ENT, Thoracic, Cardiac, and SICU, and rotations at JHH-affiliated community hospitals.
The Stipend is $48,500 with twenty-two days of personal time off to be used as vacation or sick time. Meal vouchers for call days will be provided.

Health, dental and life insurance, as well as short and long-term disability, are available. DEA, Maryland CDS number, License fee, and delegation fee will be paid for by the hospital. The residency has been approved by the AAPA for 50 Category I CME credits.

  Additional opportunities to earn Category I and II CME credits are also available throughout the year.

Qualified applicants must meet the following:

  • Graduate (or eligible for graduation by August 2012) of an Accredited PA Program with a recommended minimum GPA of 3.4.
  • Masters or Doctorate Degree or commensurate work experience
  • NCCPA certification or Eligible to sit for PANCE
  • Possess the desire to learn and be self-motivated
  • Completed application process (application and fee, letters of recommendation, and personal essay)
  • If possible, be available to interview in Baltimore

Basic Education

  • Initial didactic, clinical, and laboratory orientation
  • PA lecture series
  • Intern and Resident weekly lectures
  • Service-based specialty lecture content
  • Grand Rounds
  • Minimally Invasive Surgical Training Center (MISTC) – Monthly lab experiences with surgical staff for training in basic and advanced surgical skills[s].
  • Simulation Lab
  • Advanced Trauma Life Support Course
  • Conferences
  • Faculty mentorship

Physician Assistant Surgical Residents will follow the 7/1/2011 guidelines established by the Accreditation Council for Graduate MedicalEducation: Surgical Residents are limited to 80 hours a week (averaged over 4 weeks). Call cannot exceed every third night.  Meal coupons will be given when Physician Assistant Residents are on call.

A certificate through the Johns Hopkins Hospital will be awarded after successful completion of a twelve-month residency.

Deadlines for October Start:

Applications Postmarked by March 15
Interviews March – April
Notification April – May
Start Date October


Hopkins Hospital: a history of sex reassignment

Surgical Pathology | Johns Hopkins Medicine

In 1965, the Hopkins Hospital became the first academic institution in the United States to perform sex reassignment surgeries.

Now also known by names genital reconstruction surgery and sex realignment surgery, the procedures were perceived as radical and attracted attention from The New York Times and tabloids a. But they were conducted for experimental, not political, reasons.

Regardless, as the first place in the country where doctors and researchers could go to learn about sex reassignment surgery, Hopkins became the model for other institutions. But in 1979, Hopkins stopped performing the surgeries and never resumed.

In the 1960s, the idea to attempt the procedures came primarily from psychologist John Money and surgeon Claude Migeon, who were already treating intersex children, who, often due to chromosome variations, possess genitalia that is neither typically male nor typically female.

Money and Migeon were searching for a way to assign a gender to these children, and concluded that it would be easiest if they could do reconstructive surgery on the patients to make them appear female from the outside.

At the time, the children usually didn’t undergo genetic testing, and the doctors wanted to see if they could be brought up female.

“[Money] raised the legitimate question: ‘Can gender identity be created essentially socially?’ … Nurture trumping nature,” said Chester Schmidt, who performed psychiatric exams on the surgery candidates in the 60s and 70s.

This theory ended up backfiring on Money, most famously in the case of David Reimer, who was raised as a girl under the supervision of Money after a botched circumcision and later committed suicide after years of depression.

However, at the time, this research led Money to develop an interest in how gender identities were formed. He thought that performing surgery to match one’s sex to one’s gender identity could produce better results than just providing these patients with therapy.

“Money, in understanding that gender was — at least partially — socially constructed, was open to the fact that [transgender] women’s minds had been molded to become female, and if the mind could be manipulated, then so could the rest of the body,” Dana Beyer, Executive Director of Gender Rights Maryland, who came to Hopkins to consider the surgery in the 70s, wrote in an email to The News-Letter.

Surgeon Milton Edgerton, who was the head of the University’s plastic surgery unit, also took an interest in sex reassignment surgery after he encountered patients requesting genital surgery. In 2007, he told Baltimore Style: “I was puzzled by the problem and yet touched by the sincerity of the request.”

Edgerton’s curiosity and his plastic surgery experience, along with Money’s interest in psychology and Migeon’s knowledge of plastic surgery, allowed the three to form a surgery unit that incorporated other Hopkins surgeons at different times. With the University’s approval, they started performing sex reassignment surgeries and created the Gender Identity Clinic to investigate whether the surgeries were beneficial.

“This program, including the surgery, is investigational,” plastic surgeon John Hoopes, who was the head of the Gender Identity Clinic, told The New York Times in 1966. “The most important result of our efforts will be to determine precisely what constitutes a transsexual and what makes him remain that way.”

To determine if a person was an acceptable candidate for surgery, patients underwent a psychiatric evaluation, took gender hormones and lived and dressed as their preferred gender. The surgery and hospital care cost around $1500 at the time, according to The New York Times.

Beyer found the screening process to be invasive when she came to Hopkins to consider the surgery. She first heard that Hopkins was performing sex reassignment surgeries when she was 14 and read about them in Time and Newsweek.

“That was the time that I finally was able to put a name on who I was and realized that something could be done,” she said. “That was a very important milestone in my consciousness, in understanding who I was.”

When Beyer arrived at Hopkins, the entrance forms she had to fill out were focused on sexuality instead of sexual identity. She says she felt as if they only wanted to consider hyper-feminine candidates for the surgery, so she decided not to stay. She had her surgery decades later in 2003 in Trinidad, Colo.

“It was so highly sexualized, which was not at all my experience, certainly not the reason I was going to Hopkins to consider transition, that I just got up and left, I didn’t want anything to do with it,” she said. “No one said this explicitly, but they certainly implied it, that the whole purpose of this was to get a vagina so you could be penetrated by a penis.”

Beyer thinks that it was very important that the transgender community had access to this program at the time. However, she thinks that the experimental nature of the program was detrimental to its longevity.

“It had negative consequences because when it was done it was clearly experimental,” she said. “Our opponents were able to use the experimental nature of the surgery in the 60s and the 70s against us.”

By the mid-70s, fewer patients were being operated on, and many changes were made to the surgery and psychiatry departments, according to Schmidt, who was also a founder of the Sexual Behaviors Consultation Unit (SBCU) at the time. The new department members were not as supportive of the surgeries.

In 1979, SBCU Chair Jon Meyer conducted a study comparing 29 patients who had the surgery and 21 who didn’t, and concluded that those who had the surgery were not more adjusted to society than those who did not have the surgery.

Meyer told The New York Times in 1979: “My personal feeling is that surgery is not proper treatment for a psychiatric disorder, and it’s clear to me that these patients have severe psychological problems that don’t go away following surgery.”

After Meyer’s study was published, Paul McHugh, the Psychiatrist-in-Chief at Hopkins Hospital who never supported the University offering the surgeries according to Schmidt, shut the program down.

Meyer’s study came after a study conducted by Money, which concluded that all but one 24 patients were sure that they had made the right decision, 12 had improved their occupational status and 10 had married for the first time. Beyer believes that officials at Hopkins just wanted an excuse to end the program, so they cited Meyer’s study.

“The people at Hopkins who are naturally very conservative anyway … decided that they were embarrassed by this program and wanted to shut it down,” she said.

A 1979 New York Times article also states that not everyone was convinced by Meyer’s study and that other doctors claimed that it was “seriously flawed in its methods and statistics and draws unwarranted conclusions.”

However, McHugh says that it shouldn’t be surprising that Hopkins discontinued the surgeries, and that he still supports this decision today. He points to Meyer’s study as well as a 2011 Swedish study that states that the risk of suicide was higher for people who had the surgery versus the general population.

McHugh says that more research has to be conducted before a surgery with such a high risk should be performed, especially because he does not think the surgery is necessary.

“It’s remarkable when a biological male or female requests the ablation of their sexual reproductive organs when they are normal,” he said. “These are perfectly normal tissue. This is not pathology.”

Beyer, however, cites a study from 1992 that shows that 98.5 percent of patients who underwent male-to-female surgery and 99 percent of patients who underwent female-to-male surgery had no regrets.

“It was clear to me at the time that [McHugh] was conflating sexual orientation and the actual physical act with gender identity,” Beyer said.

However, she thinks that shutting down the surgeries at Hopkins actually helped more people gain access to them, because now the surgeries are privatized.

“Paul McHugh did the trans community a very big favor … Privatization [helps] far more people than the alternative of keeping it locked down in an academic institution which forced trans women to jump through many hoops.”

Twenty major medical institutions offered sex reassignment surgery at the time that Hopkins shut its program down, according to a 1979 AP article.

Though the surgeries at Hopkins ended in 1979, the University continued to study sexual and gender behavior. Today, the SBCU provides consultations for members of the transgender community interested in sex reassignment surgery, provides patients with hormones and refers patients to specialists for surgery.

The Hopkins Student Health and Wellness Center is also working toward providing transgender students necessary services as a plan benefit under the University’s insurance plan once the student health insurance plan switches carriers on Aug. 15.

“We are hopefully working towards getting hormones and other surgical options covered by the student health insurance,” Demere Woolway, director of LGBTQ Life at Hopkins, said.

“We’ve done a number of trainings for the folks over in the Health Center both on the counseling side and on the medical side.

So we’ve done some great work with them and I think they are in a good place to be welcoming and supportive of folks.”

Schmidt does ongoing work to provide the Hopkins population with transgender services, and says he would for Hopkins to start performing sex reassignment surgeries again. But Chris Kraft, the current co-director of the SBCU, says that this is not feasible today, as no academic institution provides these surgeries since not enough people request them.

“It is unfortunate that no medical schools in the country have faculty who are trained or able to provide surgeries,” he wrote in an email to The News-Letter. “All the best surgeons work free-standing, away from medical schools.

If we had surgeons who could provide the same quality services as the other surgeons in the country, then it would make sense to provide these services.

Sadly, few physicians are willing to make gender surgery a priority in their careers because gender patients who go on to surgery are a very small population.”

Beyer, however, does not think that the transgender community needs Hopkins to reinstate its program, and that there are currently enough options available.

“We’re way, way past that,” she said. “It’s no longer the kind of procedure that needs an academic institution to perform research and development.”

Though she finds the way that Hopkins treated its sex reassignment patients in the 60s and 70s questionable, she thinks that the SBCU has been a great resource for the transgender community.

“Today those folks are wonderful people,” Beyer said. “They’re very helpful. They’re the go-to place up in Baltimore. They’ve done a lot of good for a lot of people. They’ve contributed politically as well to passage of gender identity legislation in Maryland and elsewhere.”

The Maryland Coalition for Trans Equality’s Donna Cartwright said that the transgender community does not have enough resources available to them. She said offering surgery at a nearby academic institution could provide more support to the community.

“Generally, the medical community needs to be better educated on trans health care and there should be greater availability [of sex reassignment surgery],” she said. “I think it would be good if there was an institution in the area that did provide health care, including surgery.”


Pathology Training

Surgical Pathology | Johns Hopkins Medicine
Pathology and lab animal medicine trainees review a case on the multi-headed microscope.

Training of veterinary scientists in comparative medicine and pathology began in the mid-1960s at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

The Dept of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology (formerly Comparative Medicine) obtained one of the first NIH Training Grants for postgraduate training of veterinarians and has been funded continuously for over 35 years.

Our combination of intensive training in Comparative Pathology during the first year of the program, and research mentored by outstanding scientists in the final three years has proven highly successful.

More than 110 veterinarians have been trained in the Department of Comparative Medicine (now the Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology); many are now department chairs and leaders in academia and industry worldwide. Department faculty includes ACVP Diplomates, ACLAM Diplomates, and comparative medicine scientists.

Our faculty is currently comprised of 10 veterinarians with ACVP and/or ACLAM board certification plus additional PhD faculty.

Research interests include virology, parasitology, neuropathology, immunology, cardiovascular disease, proteomics, RNA biology, rodent phenotyping, and laboratory animal medicine.

Our postdoctoral fellows have a high pass rate on the Veterinary Pathology (ACVP) board examination and graduates enjoy satisfying careers at universities and other institutes of higher learning, as well as in industry and government.

In our comparative pathology training program, we offer two types of Postdoctoral Fellowships in Comparative Pathology. Both programs start July 1:

1. Research Emphasis, 4 year program, offered each year

2. Clinical Emphasis, 3 year program, offered once every three years

Research Emphasis Postdoctoral Fellowship in Comparative Pathology

This training is comparable to residency/PhD programs offered at veterinary schools and is distinguished by the broader research opportunities afforded by a large medical institution and the opportunity to pursue a PhD in a JHU graduate program.

This is a 2-part program: three years of research training funded by the National Institutes of Health preceded by one year of pathology training funded by Research Animal Resources.

The program prepares trainees for certification by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP).

During the first year, trainees gain practical and diverse experience in anatomic pathology through gross and microscopic examination of pathology cases from the Johns Hopkins University animal colonies, from local practitioners and from the Maryland Zoo and National Aquarium in Baltimore.

Diagnostic laboratories include necropsy, histology, clinical pathology, and state-of-the-art rodent phenotyping and small animal imaging cores. A unique feature of this program is a rotation in human pathology.

Didactic training consists of weekly lectures and pathology seminars plus peer-mentored boards study, gross and histopathology practice, and journal club.

In the years 2 to 4, emphasis is on basic or translational research supervised by Molecular Comparative Pathobiology faculty or other faculty from more than 30 academic departments forming Johns Hopkins Medicine.

During those three years, trainees also have the option to pursue a PhD through concurrent enrollment in any of several world-class graduate programs in the School of Medicine designed to provide closely mentored guidance in the process of conducting research.

Pathology training continues throughout the program with weekly slide conferences, seminars, journal clubs and other courses in preparation for ACVP certification.

Years 2-4 of this program are generously supported by NIH T32 OD011089.

For more information, view our position announcement or contact our Academic Program Coordinator, Emma Ey, at 442-287-2953 or email her at

Clinical Emphasis Postdoctoral Fellowship in Comparative Pathology

This training is comparable to a three-year anatomic pathology residency offered at veterinary schools and other institutions. Funded by Research Animal Resources, this program provides outstanding anatomic pathology training, and prepares the resident to fulfill the requirements for certification by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP).

During these three years, the Postdoctoral Fellow in the Clinical Emphasis track gain practical and diverse experience in anatomic pathology, including phenotyping and pathology of genetically engineered rodents, through gross and microscopic examination of pathology cases from the Johns Hopkins University animal colonies, local practitioners, and from the Maryland Zoo and National Aquarium in Baltimore. Our Postdoctoral Fellows in the Clinical Emphasis track works alongside the Postdoctoral Fellows in the Research Emphasis track in peer-mentored boards study, gross and histopathology practice, and journal club. the Research Emphasis track fellows, Clinical Emphasis fellows participate in the medical school's pathology service and conduct hypothesis-driven collaborative research.

For more information, view our position announcement. For more information, please contact our Academic Program Coordinator, Emma Ey, at 442-287-2953 or email us at

Current Post-Doctoral Fellows:

Lauren Peiffer (Research Emphasis)

Stephanie Myers (Research Emphasis)

Katie Mulka (Research Emphasis)

Nathan Crilly (Research Emphasis)

Claire Lyons (Research Emphasis)

Cornelia Peterson (Research Emphasis)

Sarah Powers (Clinical Emphasis)


Justin Bishop, M.D. – Faculty Profile

Surgical Pathology | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Medical School Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine (2006) Residency Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2010), Pathology

  • Clinopathologic characterization of head and neck tumors, with an emphasis on salivary gland tumors, sinonasal tract tumors, and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tumors.

Featured Publications

Microsecretory Adenocarcinoma: A Novel Salivary Gland Tumor Characterized by a Recurrent MEF2C-SS18 Fusion. Bishop JA, Weinreb I, Swanson D, Westra WH, Qureshi HS, Sciubba J, MacMillan C, Rooper LM, Dickson BC, Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2019 Aug 43 8 1023-1032 Ectomesenchymal Chondromyxoid Tumor: A Neoplasm Characterized by Recurrent RREB1-MKL2 Fusions. Dickson BC, Antonescu CR, Argyris PP, Bilodeau EA, Bullock MJ, Freedman PD, Gnepp DR, Jordan RC, Koutlas IG, Lee CH, Leong I, Merzianu M, Purgina BM, Thompson LDR, Wehrli B, Wright JM, Swanson D, Zhang L, Bishop JA Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2018 Jun HPV-related Multiphenotypic Sinonasal Carcinoma: An Expanded Series of 49 Cases of the Tumor Formerly Known as HPV-related Carcinoma With Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma- Features. Bishop JA, Andreasen S, Hang JF, Bullock MJ, Chen TY, Franchi A, Garcia JJ, Gnepp DR, Gomez-Fernandez CR, Ihrler S, Kuo YJ, Lewis JS, Magliocca KR, Pambuccian S, Sandison A, Uro-Coste E, Stelow E, Kiss K, Westra WH Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2017 Sep SMARCB1 (INI-1)-deficient Sinonasal Carcinoma: A Series of 39 Cases Expanding the Morphologic and Clinicopathologic Spectrum of a Recently Described Entity. Agaimy A, Hartmann A, Antonescu CR, Chiosea SI, El-Mofty SK, Geddert H, Iro H, Lewis JS, Märkl B, Mills SE, Riener MO, Robertson T, Sandison A, Semrau S, Simpson RH, Stelow E, Westra WH, Bishop JA Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2017 Apr 41 4 458-471 Adamantinoma- Ewing family tumors of the head and neck: a pitfall in the differential diagnosis of basaloid and myoepithelial carcinomas. Bishop JA, Alaggio R, Zhang L, Seethala RR, Antonescu CR Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2015 Sep 39 9 1267-74 Human papillomavirus-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic- features: a peculiar variant of head and neck cancer restricted to the sinonasal tract. Bishop JA, Ogawa T, Stelow EB, Moskaluk CA, Koch WM, Pai SI, Westra WH Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2013 Jun 37 6 836-44 Unmasking MASC: bringing to light the unique morphologic, immunohistochemical and genetic features of the newly recognized mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands. Bishop JA Head Neck Pathol 2013 Mar 7 1 35-9 p40 (?Np63) is superior to p63 for the diagnosis of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. Bishop JA, Teruya-Feldstein J, Westra WH, Pelosi G, Travis WD, Rekhtman N Mod. Pathol. 2012 Mar 25 3 405-15 Napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in carcinomas of the lung, breast, pancreas, colon, kidney, thyroid, and malignant mesothelioma. Bishop JA, Sharma R, Illei PB Hum. Pathol. 2010 Jan 41 1 20-5 Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma (SNUC): From an Entity to Morphologic Pattern and Back Again-A Historical Perspective. Agaimy A, Franchi A, Lund VJ, Skálová A, Bishop JA, Triantafyllou A, Andreasen S, Gnepp DR, Hellquist H, Thompson LDR, Rinaldo A, Ferlito A, Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Mar 27 2 51-60

 Featured Books

Foundations in Diagnostic Pathology: Head and Neck Pathology

Lester Thompson, Justin A Bishop (2018). Philadelphia, Elsevier

Quick Reference Handbook for Surgical Pathologists, 2nd Edition

Rekhtman N, Baine MK, Bishop JA (Ed.) (2019). Springer

Differential Diagnoses in Surgical Pathology: Head and Neck

William H Westra, Justin A Bishop (2016). Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer

Quick Reference Handbook for Surgical Pathologists

Natasha Rekhtman and Justin A Bishop (2011). New York, Springer

Atlas of Radiologic-Cytopathologic Correlations

Armanda Tatsas Syed Z Ali, Justin A Bishop, Salina Tsai, Shelia Sheth, Anil V Parwani (2012). New York, Demos

Atlas of Salivary Gland Cytopathology with Histopathologic Correlations

Chris VandenBussche, Syed Z Ali, William Faquin, Zahra Maleki, Justin A Bishop (2017). New York, Demos