The Effects of Sleep Deprivation

Johns Hopkins study adds to evidence that sleep apnea causes cardiovascular, metabolic stress

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Untreated sleep apnea can contribute to a range of conditions associated with heart disease and diabetes, according to a new study conducted by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers.

The study found increases in blood sugar, fat levels, stress hormones, and blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea—a condition that affects 20 to 30 percent of adults.

The study found increases in blood sugar, fat levels, stress hormones, and blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea—a condition that affects 20 to 30 percent of adults.

The findings, published in this month's issue of The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, may help to refine the scientific debate over whether sleep apnea is just a manifestation of obesity, or in fact an active contributor to associated health problems diabetes and heart disease.

While the link between sleep apnea and these diseases is well known, study senior author Jonathan Jun, an assistant professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the new findings add to evidence that sleep apnea can directly aggravate the health problems.

The report also emphasizes the importance of CPAP, or continuous positive airway pressure, as a treatment solution. CPAP machines increase air pressure in the throat to prevent sleep apnea's effect of closing off the upper airway and interrupting breathing.

As opposed to many previous studies that collected data from participants who were already awake, the Johns Hopkins teams studied patients while they were sleeping.

“This is one of the first studies to show real-time effects of sleep apnea on metabolism during the night,” Jun says.

Researchers found that withdrawing CPAP in the sleeping patients increased levels of free fatty acids, glucose, and cortisol (a stress hormone)—all conditions linked to diabetes. The more severe the sleep apnea, the more these parameters increased. The team also found increases in blood sugar and vascular stiffness, two conditions that can contribute to cardiovascular disease over time.

Jun emphasized that the study was limited in analyzing patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea and obesity. But the team is continuing to recruit patients in order to produce findings with broader applicability.

The report highlights consistent use of CPAP therapy as an important way to prevent the metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of sleep apnea. During the study, CPAP withdrawal caused recurrence of obstructive sleep apnea associated with sleep disruption, elevated heart rate, and reduced blood oxygen.

For patients with a hard time tolerating CPAP, researchers recommend working with sleep specialists who can assist with the machine or recommend alternative therapies.

Read more from Johns Hopkins Medicine

Posted in Health

cardiovascular health, sleep, diabetes, sleep apnea


Experts Say Malnutrition, Sleep Deprivation Should be Part of the Standard Safety Checklist

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation | Johns Hopkins Medicine

A Johns Hopkins surgeon and prominent patient safety researcher is calling on hospitals to reform emergency room, surgical and other medical protocols that sicken up to half of already seriously ill patients — in some cases severely — with preventable and potentially dangerous bouts of food and sleep deprivation.

In a commentary published ahead of print Sept. 8 in BMJ Quality & Safety, Martin Makary, MD, MPH, and his co-authors urge the wide adoption of protocols to end the practice of imposing needlessly long fasts on patients preparing for operations and to improve sleep quality in those recovering from such procedures.

“Surgery takes a huge physiologic toll on the body, and forcing sick people, especially the elderly, who are already in a frail state, to fast for eight to 12 hours, or even days, before surgery, only amplifies that stress on the body,” Makary says.

In their commentary, the authors describe what they say is a typical case of a 65-year-old woman who develops pneumonia at home and feels too sick to eat or drink much for several days.

She then goes to the emergency room, where food is withheld by medical personnel in case she needs certain invasive tests or actual surgery.

If needed, surgery might add more days without food and little sleep, owing to continuous monitoring and noise in and outside her hospital room.

The authors point out that when subjected to the same level of sleep deprivation and lack of nutrition, healthy people can develop weakened immune systems, dangerous fatigue and impaired judgment within 24 hours.

“Subject sick or elderly individuals to those same conditions and each next medical intervention becomes more dangerous as their illness takes a turn for the worse,” Makary says.

Healing may be delayed, he says, and often such individuals are readmitted after discharged home — a scenario so common it has been dubbed post-hospital syndrome.

Makary and his colleagues argue that acute malnutrition and sleep deprivation, the latter already endemic in hospitalized patients, have increased as hospitals get busier, and as the population ages.

Moreover, Makary and his co-authors say, with medical care now highly specialized, breakdowns in communication among medical staff often adds to delays in definitive care, extending periods of malnutrition and sleeplessness.

Currently, says Makary, most pre-operative patients are told not to eat or drink anything past midnight on the day before a scheduled surgery to prevent stomach contents from entering the lungs and blocking airflow. For patients who operations are scheduled early in the morning, that may not be a serious issue, but surgeries take place all day and are often delayed.

More importantly, Makary and his co-authors note, such limitations are woefully date, and they cite research showing that food needs to be curtailed only six to eight hours before surgery and drinks just two hours before.

Under a protocol dubbed the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) and already used at The Johns Hopkins Hospital for many, but not all, patients scheduled for surgery are prescribed a carbohydrate-rich sports drink, two hours before the procedure, to mitigate the stress of fasting.

The approach also includes limiting the use of intravenous feeding and a faster return to normal feeding.

A recent study led by Johns Hopkins surgeon Elizabeth Wick, M.D., a co-author on the commentary, demonstrated that the ERAS approach can reduce the average length of stay by two days among colorectal patients, among other complications. The average cost of treatment also decreased from nearly $11,000 to $9,000 per patient.

Reducing sleep deprivation, however, may require more dramatic changes in hospital routine, the authors say. Currently, hospitals are noisy, stressful environments, with loud conversations outside the room, phones ringing, repeat overhead pages and shared rooms, the authors write.

While the World Health Organization recommends keeping hospital noise levels below 35 decibels at night and 40 decibels during the day, most hospitals exceed those levels, occasionally by several orders of magnitude, according to a 2012 study described in Intensive and Critical Care Nursing. Adding to sleep problems, many lights remain on, particularly in the emergency department, and lab draws of blood occur at all times of day and night.

Johns Hopkins changed practices so that lab draws now occur only during the day. The hospital has also eliminated overhead paging on clinical units to reduce sleep disturbance, and most patients stay in private rooms.

The authors suggest that hospitals should conduct noise studies and encourage patient feedback on the most disruptive sources of noise. Smaller interventions, such as providing eye masks, gentle music and art in hospital rooms can also encourage relaxation and sleep, the authors write.

“Avoidable starvation and induced sleep deprivation are ubiquitous in health care. It's no surprise that these factors influence patient outcomes,” Makary says. “We should view hospitals as healing environments rather than isolated clinical spaces and design patient care accordingly.”

Tim Xu, MP.P., a public policy expert and a student at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, is the third co-author on the commentary.

Source: Johns Hopkins Medicine


Partial Sleep Deprivation Attenuates the Positive Affective System: EffectsAcross Multiple Measurement Modalities

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation | Johns Hopkins Medicine

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The Physical and Mental Effects of Sleep Deprivation

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Depending upon a person’s age and underlying health conditions, the average adult requires at least seven hours of sleep per day.

2 It’s easy to place a low priority on sleep when schedules get busy and stresses arise. However, sleep deprivation is a very serious matter, and there are many concerning consequences of sleep deprivation.

These consequences go far beyond simply feeling tired during the day.

This article describes the most common physical symptoms of sleep deprivation, as well as the mental effects of sleep deprivation in adults. This article also discusses when these symptoms may occur and how to ensure a more restful night’s sleep.

Mood Changes

Some of the biggest psychological effects of sleep deprivation are changes in mood. When a person has gotten inadequate sleep, he or she is more ly to become excessively emotional, be quick-tempered, and experience anxiety or depression. 3

Memory Lapses

Another one of the mental effects of sleep deprivation is memory lapses, which can impact how a person performs at work, home, and school. This effect occurs because the brain processes connections to help a person remember information during sleep. Both short-term memory and long-term memory can be affected by a lack of sleep. 3

High Blood Pressure

There are also many physical symptoms of sleep deprivation, such as high blood pressure. The body requires sleep to regulate its various systems and maintain blood pressure at normal levels. Furthermore, sleep deprivation increases a person’s risk for heart disease because of the increases in blood pressure increases and in bodily inflammation. 3

Weakened Immunity

The immune system is not immune to sleep deprivation effects, and not getting enough sleep can lead to increased disease risks. Not only will an unrested body be more susceptible to common illnesses, such as the flu, but it can also be at a greater risk for more serious conditions, including diabetes.3

Weight Gain

Among the many side effects of sleep deprivation is weight gain. This is because sleep is needed to transmit chemicals between the brain and body that it is full and has nutritional balance. When a person is sleep deprived, they are more ly to overeat and make unhealthy food choices that can lead to becoming overweight or obese.3

When Sleep Deprivation Effects Occur

The effects of sleep deprivation typically set in when a person has gotten less than five hours of sleep per night. Getting less sleep for just one night may not cause these symptoms, but prolonged sleeplessness for three or more nights can result in multiple sleep deprivation effects.

One of the best ways to avoid these symptoms is to make sleep a priority and adjust the daily schedule to allow enough time for sleep.

Many adults can also benefit from taking natural melatonin supplements, NiteThru, to help their bodies promptly fall asleep and stay asleep throughout the night.

This is a great option for night shift workers, travelers with jet lag, and individuals who have health conditions that affect their bodies’ natural ability to sleep well.1



Search results for

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation | Johns Hopkins Medicine

The following article profiles work performed by ICTR researcher Jonathan Jun, M.D., assistant professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Sleep apnea, left untreated for even a few days, can increase blood sugar and fat levels, stress hormones and blood pressure, according to a new study of sleeping subjects.

A report of the study’s findings, published in the August issue of The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, adds further support for the consistent use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a machine that increases air pressure in the throat to keep the airway open during […]

The following article profiles work performed in part by ICTR researcher Paul Worley, M.D., professor of neuroscience.

Chemical recalibration of brain cells during sleep is crucial for learning, and sleeping pills may sabotage it Studying mice, scientists at Johns Hopkins have fortified evidence that a key purpose of sleep is to recalibrate the brain cells responsible for learning and memory so the animals can “solidify” lessons learned and use them when they awaken — in the case of nocturnal mice, the next evening. The researchers, all of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, also report they have discovered several important […]

The Point of Care Technology Research Network (POCTRN) drives the development of point-of-care technologies through collaborative efforts that merge scientific and technological capabilities with clinical need.

The goal of the Point Of Care Technology Research Network is to develop technologies with clinical applications using a network model that enhances complementary strengths and builds multidisciplinary partnerships.

If you have a promising point-of-care medical technology in need of further development, review the following funding opportunities: Development of Point-of-Care (POC) Testing for HIV and co-morbidities for use in low- and middle-income countries Sponsored by The Center for Innovation in Point of Care Technologies […]

Imagine not being able to drive, shower alone or even work because you are never quite sure when the next seizure will leave you incapacitated. Hope may be on the horizon for epilepsy patients who have had limited success with seizure drugs.

In a study, led by a Johns Hopkins lead investigator, of 437 patients across 107 institutions in 16 countries, researchers found that the investigational drug cenobamate reduced seizures 55% on the two highest doses of this medication that were tested over the entire treatment period.

The findings of this trial were published Nov. 13 in The Lancet Neurology. Currently, […]

Technology that lets humans communicate with machines adapts well to role as medical detective. This article discusses the work of ICTR Researchers Dr. Masoud Rouhizadeh and Dr. Douglas Mogul.

Natural language processing, the technology that lets computers read, decipher, understand and make sense of human language, is the driving force behind internet search engines, email filters, digital assistants such as Amazon’s Alexa and Apple’s Siri, and language-to-language translation apps.

Now, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have given this technology a new job as a clinical detective, diagnosing the early and subtle signs of language-associated cognitive impairments in patients with […]

This article features ICTR Nutritionist, Diane Vizthum, MS, RD. Ah, coffee. Whether you’re cradling a travel mug on your way to work or dashing out after spin class to refuel with a skinny latte, it’s hard to imagine a day without it.

The caffeine perks you up, and there’s something incredibly soothing about sipping a steaming cup of joe. But is drinking coffee good for you? Good news: The case for coffee is stronger than ever.

Study after study indicates you could be getting more from your favorite morning beverage than you thought: Coffee is chock full of substances that […]

Two FDA-approved drugs significantly extend survival time in mouse model of deadly gynecologic disease Delivering two federally approved immunity-altering drugs together significantly extended the lives of mice injected with human ovarian cancer cells, an early proof-of-concept experiment that may advance treatment for the most deadly — although rare — gynecologic malignancy in humans, according to scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center who performed the research. The combination treatment appears to improve survival by changing the natural ratio of different types of immune system “clean up” cells called macrophages, a therapy target that’s received less attention than other immune system components […]

Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine, the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia and seven other medical institutions report that an experimental drug called vosoritide, which interferes with certain proteins that block bone growth, allowed the average annual growth rate to increase in a study of 35 children and teenagers with achondroplasia, a form of dwarfism. The patients’ average boost in height to about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) per year is close to growth rates among children of average stature, and the side effects of the drug were mostly mild, according to the researchers. Results of the four-year study are summarized […]

More than one in 10 people successfully treated with antibiotics for Lyme disease go on to develop chronic, sometimes debilitating, and poorly understood symptoms of fatigue and brain fog that may last for years after their initial infection has cleared up.

Do you have a promising point-of-care medical technology in need of further development?   The NIH’s Point-of-Care Technology Research Network (POCTRN) drives the development of point-of-care technologies through collaborative efforts that merge scientific and technological capabilities with clinical need.

The goal of the Point Of Care Technology Research Network is to develop technologies with clinical applications using a network model that enhances complementary strengths and builds multidisciplinary partnerships.

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Researchers find that the hunger hormone leptin eases breathing problems in mice during sleep Experimenting with mice, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have added to evidence that a hormone best known for helping regulate hunger and body weight might also ease breathing problems experienced during sleep more effectively when given through the nose. Although clinical trials using the hormone, known as leptin, aren’t yet on the horizon, the investigators say their success delivering it through the test animals’ noses may help them develop easier-to-use therapies for people with sleep-related breathing problems such as sleep apnea. The findings were published online Oct. […]


Effects of Sleep Deprivation

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation | Johns Hopkins Medicine

You ly know how it feels to be sleep deprived: your brain feels fuzzy, little annoyances bother you more than they normally do, and you might even look or feel sick. Both your body and your brain suffer when you don’t get enough sleep.

Did you know drowsy driving can slow reaction times down to a rate similar to drunk driving? Maybe you stayed up late studying for a test, but have you tried doing a simple mental math problem when you’re sleep deprived? Not so simple! In a world that’s constantly on the go, your body and mind need a chance to rest to keep up.

Read on to learn about the common effects of sleep deprivation and what you can do to wake up refreshed, invigorated and ready to go.

Effects of sleep deprivation on the body

Weight gain: You feel hungry when you’re sleep deprived because your body increases the hormone that tells you that you’re hungry while decreasing the hormone that controls your appetite. Even worse, lack of sleep increases your cravings for high-fat foods. Over time, the impact this has on your body can be severe.

Those who sleep less than six hours a night are more ly to become obese than those who sleep seven to nine hours a night. Increased blood pressure: Chronically being unable to get enough sleep can affect your body’s ability to regulate cortisol, the primary stress hormone.

This increase in cortisol is thought to increase your blood pressure, which can lead to a host of other problems, heart disease and stroke. Increased risk of heart disease: Because lack of sleep is linked to high blood pressure, your heart also suffers from sleep deprivation.

Your risk of coronary heart disease and other heart-related diseases dramatically increases with chronic sleep deprivation. Increased risk of diabetes: When you don’t get enough sleep, your body has trouble regulating the glucose level in your bloodstream.

Your risk for type 2 diabetes nearly triples with chronic, long-term sleep deprivation. Lowered immunity: According to a study done by Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, you are three times more ly to contract a cold when you’re sleep deprived.

You’re also more ly to contract more serious diseases, and your body will have a harder time fighting them off. Premature skin aging: While just one night of missed sleep can cause dark circles and sallow skin, chronic under-sleeping can make your skin age more quickly than it should.

Excess amounts of cortisol can break down the collagen in your skin, so wrinkles and fine line appear more quickly. Lowered sex drive: Depleted energy can lead to lower libidos in both men and women. For men with sleep apnea, this effect can be compounded as they also have a higher risk of having low testosterone levels, which decreases interest in sex.

Effects of sleep deprivation on the mind

Greater risk of mood disorders: Irritability, anxiety and depression are all common effects of not getting enough sleep. When your brain doesn’t have a chance to fully rest and reboot, minor inconveniences can seem major ones.

You may notice that you cry more easily when you haven’t gotten enough sleep or that you snap at a loved one. That’s your brain telling you it hasn’t gotten the rest it needs. Forgetfulness: While you sleep, memories are moved from short-term storage in the hippocampus to long-term storage in the neocortex of the brain.

When you don’t get enough deep REM sleep, this process can be disrupted, and those memories can be lost. Fuzzy thinking: When you don’t get enough sleep, cognitive processes, attention, reasoning and problem-solving, are all affected.

This leads to a decreased in performance of tasks you usually do well and can make learning new things extremely difficult. Poor judgment: With a loss of reasoning, you run the risk of making poor judgement calls. The worst effects of this often come in relation to sleep.

People who haven’t been getting enough sleep may not be able to recognize the effects that sleep deprivation is having on them. Because of this, they may believe that they can continue functioning on just a few hours of sleep a night.

What you can do to avoid sleep deprivation

There’s no need to suffer the effects of sleep deprivation. The sleep experts at ZzzQuil are here to help. Consider using a sleep aid that’s right for you. ZzzQuil PURE Zzzs sleep aids are non-habit-forming and won’t cause next-day grogginess, so you can wake up rested, refreshed and ready to face the day.